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Asymmetry in the ERM: A Case Study of French and German Interest Rates Before and After German Unification


  • Edward H. Gardner

    (International Monetary Fund)

  • William R. M. Perraudin

    (International Monetary Fund)


Daily French and German interest rate changes since the Basle-Nyborg agreement of September 1987 are examined empirically. In particular, it is asked whether the shock associated with German unification altered the degree of leadership of German monetary policy in the exchange rate mechanism (ERM). The paper finds that Germany's leadership role within the ERM largely disappeared in the year following unification but that the Bundesbank began reasserting its predominance thereafter.

Suggested Citation

  • Edward H. Gardner & William R. M. Perraudin, 1993. "Asymmetry in the ERM: A Case Study of French and German Interest Rates Before and After German Unification," IMF Staff Papers, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 40(2), pages 427-450, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:pal:imfstp:v:40:y:1993:i:2:p:427-450

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Jerome Henry & Jens Weidmann, 2005. "The French-German Interest Rate Differential Since German," International Finance 0503009, EconWPA.
    2. Laopodis, N. T., 1998. "Asymmetric volatility spillovers in deutsche mark exchange rates," Journal of Multinational Financial Management, Elsevier, vol. 8(4), pages 413-430, November.
    3. Laopodis, Nikiforos T., 2004. "European and international asymmetry in the volatility transmission mechanism: the "German Dominance Hypothesis" revisited," Journal of Economics and Business, Elsevier, vol. 56(2), pages 75-97.
    4. Forssbaeck, Jens & Oxelheim, Lars, 2005. "On the Link between Exchange-Rate Regimes and Monetary-Policy Autonomy: The European Experience," Working Paper Series 637, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
    5. M. Demertzis & A. Hughes Hallett, 2000. "Wage Inflation and the Distribution of Output Gaps in Europe: Insiders vs. Outsiders," WO Research Memoranda (discontinued) 631, Netherlands Central Bank, Research Department.
    6. Marie Podevin, 2001. "Interaction entre taux d'intérêt allemands et français : un réexamen de l'hypothèse de dominance allemande," Économie et Prévision, Programme National Persée, vol. 148(2), pages 49-70.
    7. Bajo-Rubio, Oscar & Sosvilla-Rivero, Simon & Fernandez-Rodriguez, Fernando, 2001. "Asymmetry in the EMS: New evidence based on non-linear forecasts," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 45(3), pages 451-473, March.
    8. Demertzis, Maria & Hughes Hallett, Andrew & Schermer, Nicolien, 2009. "Europeanization or globalization? Transnational wage bargaining and the distribution of activity in European labor markets," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 177-192, August.
    9. Oscar Bajo-Rubio & M. Dolores Mont·vez-GarcÈs, "undated". "There was monetary autonomy in Europe on the eve of EMU?. The German dominance hypothesis re-examined," Studies on the Spanish Economy 52, FEDEA.
    10. Oscar Bajo-Rubio & M. Dolores Montávez-Garcés, 2002. "Was there Monetary Autonomy in Europe on the eve of EMU? The German Dominance Hypothesis Re-Examined," Journal of Applied Economics, Universidad del CEMA, vol. 5, pages 185-207, November.
    11. Kremer, Manfred, 1999. "Die Kapitalmarktzinsen in Deutschland und den USA: Wie eng ist der Zinsverbund? Eine Anwendung der multivariaten Kointegrationsanalyse," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 1999,02, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    12. Giorgioni, Gianluigi & Holden, Ken, 2002. "The crisis of the CFA Franc zone: the case of Cote d'Ivoire," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 19(4), pages 531-564, August.
    13. Axel Cron, Jens Weidmann, 1996. "German Unification and the EMS: A Non-Parametric Approach to the Asymmetry Question," Discussion Paper Serie B 353, University of Bonn, Germany.
    14. Robert Brooks & Robert Faff & David Sokulsky, 2005. "The stock market impact of German reunification: international evidence," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 15(1), pages 31-42.

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • E43 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Money and Interest Rates - - - Interest Rates: Determination, Term Structure, and Effects
    • E52 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Monetary Policy
    • E58 - Macroeconomics and Monetary Economics - - Monetary Policy, Central Banking, and the Supply of Money and Credit - - - Central Banks and Their Policies
    • F31 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Foreign Exchange
    • F33 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - International Monetary Arrangements and Institutions
    • F36 - International Economics - - International Finance - - - Financial Aspects of Economic Integration


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