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A Finite Difference Approach to the Valuation of Path Dependent Life Insurance Liabilities

Author

Listed:
  • Bjarke Jensen

    (SEB Fixed Income Research, Landemærket 10, DK-1119 Copenhagen K, Denmark, e-mail: bjarke.jensen@seb.se)

  • Peter Løchte Jørgensen

    (Department of Management, University of Aarhus, Bldg. 350, DK-8000 Aarhus C, Denmark, e-mail: ecolochte@econ.au.dk)

  • Anders Grosen

    (Department of Finance, Aarhus School of Business, DK-8210 Aarhus V, Denmark, e-mail: gro@asb.dk)

Abstract

This paper sets up a model for the valuation of traditional participating life insurance policies. These claims are characterized by their explicit interest rate guarantees and by various embedded option elements, such as bonus and surrender options. Owing to the structure of these contracts, the theory of contingent claims pricing is a particularly well-suited framework for the analysis of their valuation.The eventual benefits (or pay-offs) from the contracts considered crucially depend on the history of returns on the insurance company's assets during the contract period. This path-dependence prohibits the derivation of closed-form valuation formulas but we demonstrate that the dimensionality of the problem can be reduced to allow for the development and implementation of a finite difference algorithm for fast and accurate numerical evaluation of the contracts. We also demonstrate how the fundamental financial model can be extended to allow for mortality risk and we provide a wide range of numerical pricing results. The Geneva Papers on Risk and Insurance Theory (2001) 26, 57–84. doi:10.1023/A:1011264408187

Suggested Citation

  • Bjarke Jensen & Peter Løchte Jørgensen & Anders Grosen, 2001. "A Finite Difference Approach to the Valuation of Path Dependent Life Insurance Liabilities," The Geneva Risk and Insurance Review, Palgrave Macmillan;International Association for the Study of Insurance Economics (The Geneva Association), vol. 26(1), pages 57-84, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:pal:genrir:v:26:y:2001:i:1:p:57-84
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Steinar Ekern & Svein-Arne Persson, 1996. "Exotic Unit-Linked Life Insurance Contracts," The Geneva Risk and Insurance Review, Palgrave Macmillan;International Association for the Study of Insurance Economics (The Geneva Association), vol. 21(1), pages 35-63, June.
    2. Aase Nielsen, J. & Sandmann, Klaus, 1995. "Equity-linked life insurance: A model with stochastic interest rates," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(3), pages 225-253, July.
    3. Brennan, Michael J. & Schwartz, Eduardo S., 1976. "The pricing of equity-linked life insurance policies with an asset value guarantee," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 3(3), pages 195-213, June.
    4. Black, Fischer & Scholes, Myron S, 1973. "The Pricing of Options and Corporate Liabilities," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 637-654, May-June.
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    Cited by:

    1. Nadine Gatzert & Gudrun Hoermann & Hato Schmeiser, 2009. "The Impact of the Secondary Market on Life Insurers' Surrender Profits," Journal of Risk & Insurance, The American Risk and Insurance Association, vol. 76(4), pages 887-908.
    2. Andreas Reuß & Jochen Ruß & Jochen Wieland, 2016. "Participating Life Insurance Products with Alternative Guarantees: Reconciling Policyholders’ and Insurers’ Interests," Risks, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 4(2), pages 1-18, May.
    3. Ninna Reitzel Jensen & Kristian Juul Schomacker, 2015. "A Two-Account Life Insurance Model for Scenario-Based Valuation Including Event Risk," Risks, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 3(2), pages 1-36, June.
    4. Hainaut, Donatien, 2010. "Optimal design of profit sharing rates by FFT," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(3), pages 470-478, June.
    5. Kling, Alexander & Richter, Andreas & Ruß, Jochen, 2006. "The Impact of Surplus Distribution on the Risk Exposure of With Profit Life Insurance Policies Including Interest Rate Guarantees," Discussion Papers in Business Administration 1220, University of Munich, Munich School of Management.
    6. Martin Eling & Michael Kochanski, 2013. "Research on lapse in life insurance: what has been done and what needs to be done?," Journal of Risk Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 14(4), pages 392-413, August.
    7. Tanskanen, Antti Juho & Lukkarinen, Jani, 2003. "Fair valuation of path-dependent participating life insurance contracts," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 595-609, December.
    8. Zaglauer, Katharina & Bauer, Daniel, 2008. "Risk-neutral valuation of participating life insurance contracts in a stochastic interest rate environment," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 29-40, August.
    9. Bernard, Carole & Le Courtois, Olivier & Quittard-Pinon, Francois, 2005. "Market value of life insurance contracts under stochastic interest rates and default risk," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(3), pages 499-516, June.
    10. Kling, Alexander & Richter, Andreas & Ru[ss], Jochen, 2007. "The interaction of guarantees, surplus distribution, and asset allocation in with-profit life insurance policies," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 164-178, January.
    11. Lin, Shih-Kuei & Lin, Chien-Hsiu & Chuang, Ming-Che & Chou, Chia-Yu, 2014. "A recursive formula for a participating contract embedding a surrender option under regime-switching model with jump risks: Evidence from stock indices," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 341-350.
    12. Zemp, Alexandra, 2011. "Risk comparison of different bonus distribution approaches in participating life insurance," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(2), pages 249-264, September.
    13. De Giovanni, Domenico, 2007. "Lapse Rate Modeling: A Rational Expectation Approach," Finance Research Group Working Papers F-2007-03, University of Aarhus, Aarhus School of Business, Department of Business Studies.
    14. Bohnert, Alexander & Gatzert, Nadine, 2012. "Analyzing surplus appropriation schemes in participating life insurance from the insurer’s and the policyholder’s perspective," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(1), pages 64-78.
    15. Schmeiser, H. & Wagner, J., 2011. "A joint valuation of premium payment and surrender options in participating life insurance contracts," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 49(3), pages 580-596.
    16. Goecke, Oskar, 2013. "Pension saving schemes with return smoothing mechanism," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 53(3), pages 678-689.
    17. Bauer, Daniel & Kiesel, Rudiger & Kling, Alexander & Ru[ss], Jochen, 2006. "Risk-neutral valuation of participating life insurance contracts," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(2), pages 171-183, October.
    18. Feodoria, Mark & Förstemann, Till, 2015. "Lethal lapses: How a positive interest rate shock might stress German life insurers," Discussion Papers 12/2015, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    19. Russo, Vincenzo & Giacometti, Rosella & Fabozzi, Frank J., 2017. "Intensity-based framework for surrender modeling in life insurance," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 189-196.
    20. repec:gam:jrisks:v:4:y:2016:i:2:p:11:d:69437 is not listed on IDEAS
    21. Bacinello, Anna Rita, 2005. "Endogenous model of surrender conditions in equity-linked life insurance," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 270-296, October.
    22. Gerstner, Thomas & Griebel, Michael & Holtz, Markus, 2009. "Efficient deterministic numerical simulation of stochastic asset-liability management models in life insurance," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 44(3), pages 434-446, June.
    23. Iwaki, Hideki & Yumae, Shoji, 2004. "An efficient frontier for participating policies in a continuous-time economy," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 35(3), pages 611-625, December.

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