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Estimating Wal-Mart's Impacts in Maryland: A Test of Identification Strategies and Endogeneity Tests

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  • Michael J Hicks

    () (Ball State University.)

Abstract

In this paper, I estimate the impact of Wal-Mart on labor markets in Maryland. My goal is to compare estimation techniques that incorporate corrections for endogeneity of Wal-Mart's entrance and those that test for and fail to reject exogeneity in Wal-Mart's entrance decision. The instrumental variable approaches I test include those offered by Basker and Neumark et al., and a new test introduced in this paper. I also explain why differences in choice of sample time and location may lead to different findings as to the impact of Wal-Mart. I find that there is weak evidence of endogeneity in Wal-Mart's entrance decision, but that the bias is opposite of that anticipated by most researchers. Most interestingly, there are no significant differences across instrumental variable techniques employed in the literature. As for Wal-Mart in Maryland, that exposure to Wal-Mart leads to lower retail employment (from zero to 414 retail jobs), but significantly higher retail wages (as much as $1.95 per hour) at the county level. I also find that exposure to Wal-Mart has no effect on aggregate labor markets, though aggregate wages are positively affected, although the impact is very small (roughly $160 per year). I recommend that Maryland adopt a policy neutral approach to Wal-Mart. Eastern Economic Journal (2008) 34, 56–73. doi:10.1057/palgrave.eej.9050002

Suggested Citation

  • Michael J Hicks, 2008. "Estimating Wal-Mart's Impacts in Maryland: A Test of Identification Strategies and Endogeneity Tests," Eastern Economic Journal, Palgrave Macmillan;Eastern Economic Association, vol. 34(1), pages 56-73, Winter.
  • Handle: RePEc:pal:easeco:v:34:y:2008:i:1:p:56-73
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Martens, Bobby J. & Dooley, Frank J. & Florax, Raymond J.G.M., 2010. "A Spatial Analysis of the Effect of Entry by Supercenter and Warehouse Club Retailers on Grocery Sales," Journal of Food Distribution Research, Food Distribution Research Society, vol. 0(Number 2), pages 1-12, July.
    2. Vandegrift, Donald & Loyer, John & Kababik, David, 2011. "The effect of Walmart on the tax base: evidence from New Jersey," MPRA Paper 30937, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Rudholm, Niklas & Li, Yuijao & Kenneth, Carling, 2018. "How Does Big-Box Entry Affect Labor Productivity in Durable Goods Retailing? A Synthetic Control Approach," HUI Working Papers 130, HUI Research.
    4. repec:eee:joreco:v:40:y:2018:i:c:p:175-187 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. repec:ags:jrapmc:262577 is not listed on IDEAS
    6. Michael Hicks, 2015. "Does Wal-Mart Cause an Increase in Anti-Poverty Expenditures?," Social Science Quarterly, Southwestern Social Science Association, vol. 96(4), pages 1136-1152, December.
    7. repec:ags:jlaare:119159 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. repec:taf:regstd:v:51:y:2017:i:2:p:313-323 is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Michael J. Hicks, 2007. "Job Turnover and Wages in the Retail Sector: The Influence of Wal-Mart," Journal of Private Enterprise, The Association of Private Enterprise Education, vol. 22(Spring 20), pages 137-160.
    10. Donald Vandegrift, 2016. "The effect of Walmart and Target on property tax rates," Letters in Spatial and Resource Sciences, Springer, vol. 9(3), pages 309-327, October.
    11. Peralta, Denis & Kim, Man-Keun, 2016. "Big-Box Retailers and Personal Income Growth in the U.S," 2016 Annual Meeting, July 31-August 2, Boston, Massachusetts 235216, Agricultural and Applied Economics Association.
    12. Sven-Olov Daunfeldt & Oana Mihaescu & Helena Nilsson & Niklas Rudholm, 2017. "What happens when IKEA comes to town?," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 51(2), pages 313-323, February.
    13. Donald Vandegrift & John Loyer, 2015. "The Effect Of Walmart And Target On The Tax Base: Evidence From New Jersey," Journal of Regional Science, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 55(2), pages 159-187, March.
    14. Håkansson, Johan & Li, Yujiao & Mihaescu, Oana & Rudholm, Niklas, 2016. "Big-box retail entry in urban and rural areas: Are there productivity spillovers to incumbent retailers?," HUI Working Papers 118, HUI Research.
    15. Bonanno, Alessandro & Lopez, Rigoberto A., 2012. "Wal-Mart's monopsony power in metro and non-metro labor markets," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(4), pages 569-579.

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