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The Effects of Taxation on the Location Decision of Multinational Firms: M&a Versus Greenfield Investments

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  • Hebous, Shafik
  • Ruf, Martin
  • Weichenrieder, Alfons J.

Abstract

In this study, we estimate the impact of differences in international tax rates on the probability of choosing a location for an affiliate of a multinational firm. In particular, we distinguish between the tax sensitivity of Greenfield and Mergers and Acquisitions (M&A) investments. Based on a novel firm-level dataset on German outbound foreign direct investment (FDI), we find evidence that location decisions of M&A investments are less sensitive to differences in tax rates than location decisions of Greenfield investments. According to our logit estimates, after controlling for firm and country-specific characteristics, the tax elasticity for Greenfield investments is negative and in absolute value significantly larger than that associated with M&A investments. This finding is consistent with (partial) capitalization of taxes in the acquisition price when the FDI project takes the form of a M&A.

Suggested Citation

  • Hebous, Shafik & Ruf, Martin & Weichenrieder, Alfons J., 2011. "The Effects of Taxation on the Location Decision of Multinational Firms: M&a Versus Greenfield Investments," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 64(3), pages 817-838, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:ntj:journl:v:64:y:2011:i:3:p:817-38
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Carrère, Céline & Fugazza, Marco & Olarreaga, Marcelo & Robert-Nicoud, Frédéric, 2016. "On the heterogeneous effect of trade on unemployment," CEPR Discussion Papers 11540, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
    2. Ronald B. Davies & Rodolphe Desbordes & Anna Ray, 2015. "Greenfield versus Merger \& Acquisition FDI: Same Wine, Different Bottles?," The Institute for International Integration Studies Discussion Paper Series iiisdp469, IIIS.
    3. Reddy, Kotapati Srinivasa, 2015. "Revisiting and Reinforcing the Farmers Fox Theory: A Study (Test) of Three Cases in Cross-border Inbound Acquisitions," MPRA Paper 63561, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2015.
    4. Keller, Sara & Schanz, Deborah, 2013. "Measuring tax attractiveness across countries," arqus Discussion Papers in Quantitative Tax Research 143, arqus - Arbeitskreis Quantitative Steuerlehre.
    5. Feld, Lars P. & Ruf, Martin & Schreiber, Ulrich & Todtenhaupt, Maximilian & Voget, Johannes, 2016. "Taxing away M&A: The effect of corporate capital gains taxes on acquisition activity," ZEW Discussion Papers 16-007, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    6. Reddy, Kotapati Srinivasa, 2016. "Institutional Voids and Tax litigation in Emerging Economies: The verdict of Vodafone cross-border acquisition of Hutchison," MPRA Paper 74264, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2016.
    7. Keller, Sara & Schanz, Deborah, 2013. "Tax attractiveness and the location of German-controlled subsidiaries," arqus Discussion Papers in Quantitative Tax Research 142, arqus - Arbeitskreis Quantitative Steuerlehre.
    8. Shafik Hebous & Alfons J. Weichenrieder, 2015. "What Do We Know about the Tax Planning of German-based Multinational Firms?," ifo DICE Report, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 12(4), pages 15-21, 01.
    9. Davies, Ronald B. & Siedschlag, Iulia & Studnicka, Zuzanna, 2016. "The Impact of Taxes on the Extensive and Intensive Margins of FDI," Papers WP537, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
    10. Overesch Michael, 2016. "Steuervermeidung multinationaler Unternehmen," Perspektiven der Wirtschaftspolitik, De Gruyter, vol. 17(2), pages 129-143, July.
    11. Wiji Arulampalam & Michael P. Devereux & Federica Liberini, 2012. "Taxes and the Location of Targets," Working Papers 1213, Oxford University Centre for Business Taxation.
    12. Ronald B. Davies & Neill Killeen, 2015. "Location Decisions of Non-Bank Financial Foreign Direct Investment: Firm-Level Evidence from Europe," Working Papers 201526, School of Economics, University College Dublin.
    13. Reddy, Kotapati Srinivasa, 2015. "Determinants of Cross-border Mergers and Acquisitions: A Comprehensive Review and Future Direction," MPRA Paper 63969, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2015.
    14. Xie, En & Reddy, K.S. & Liang, Jie, 2017. "Country-specific determinants of cross-border mergers and acquisitions: A comprehensive review and future research directions," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 52(2), pages 127-183.
    15. Sylwia Bialek & Alfons J. Weichenrieder, 2016. "Environmental Regulation and Foreign Direct Investment: The Role of Mode of Entry," ifo DICE Report, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 13(4), pages 41-47, 02.
    16. repec:ces:ifodic:v:12:y:2015:i:4:p:19149984 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Hayato Kato & Hirofumi Okoshi, 2017. "Production Location of Multinational Firms under Transfer Pricing: The Impact of the Arm's Length Principle," Keio-IES Discussion Paper Series 2017-016, Institute for Economics Studies, Keio University.
    18. Reddy, Kotapati Srinivasa, 2014. "Institutional Dichotomy and Cross-Border Inbound Acquisitions: A Study of Three Cases," MPRA Paper 64221, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2014.
    19. Desislava Dikova & Keith Brouthers, 2016. "International Establishment Mode Choice: Past, Present and Future," Management International Review, Springer, vol. 56(4), pages 489-530, August.
    20. Heim, Sven & Hüschelrath, Kai & Laitenberger, Ulrich & Spiegel, Yossi, 2017. "Minority share acquisitions and collusion: Evidence from the introduction of national leniency programs," ZEW Discussion Papers 17-037, ZEW - Zentrum für Europäische Wirtschaftsforschung / Center for European Economic Research.
    21. Reddy, Kotapati Srinivasa, 2015. "Why do Cross-border Merger/Acquisition Deals become Delayed, or Unsuccessful? – A Cross-Case Analysis in the Dynamic Industries," MPRA Paper 63940, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 2015.
    22. repec:ces:ifodic:v:13:y:2016:i:4:p:19191587 is not listed on IDEAS
    23. Deborah Schanz & Andreas Dinkel & Sara Keller, 2017. "Tax attractiveness and the location of German-controlled subsidiaries," Review of Managerial Science, Springer, vol. 11(1), pages 251-297, January.

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