IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/mhr/finarc/urnsici0015-2218(2002-200302)591_91wtwitu_2.0.tx_2-8.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Welfare to Work in the US: A Model for Germany?

Author

Listed:
  • Wolfgang Ochel

Abstract

Social assistance in Germany reduces the incentive to work. The U.S. Welfare to Work Programme tries to avoid such disincentives. It consists essentially of two elements: the Earned Income Tax Credit (EITC) for employees in low-wage occupations and a Workfare model. The EITC and the Workfare model as implemented in the State of Wisconsin are described and analyzed. In conclusion, the introduction of an EITC and a workfare approach in Germany is recommended.

Suggested Citation

  • Wolfgang Ochel, 2002. "Welfare to Work in the US: A Model for Germany?," FinanzArchiv: Public Finance Analysis, Mohr Siebeck, Tübingen, vol. 59(1), pages 91-119, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:mhr:finarc:urn:sici:0015-2218(2002/200302)59:1_91:wtwitu_2.0.tx_2-8
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.mohrsiebeck.com/en/article/welfare-to-work-in-the-u-s-a-model-for-germany-1016280015221032906144
    Download Restriction: Fulltext access is included for subscribers to the printed version.
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version below or search for a different version of it.

    Other versions of this item:

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Robert Walker & Michael Wiseman, 1997. "The possibility of a British earned income tax credit," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 18(4), pages 401-425, November.
    2. Holtzblatt, Janet & McCubbin, Janet & Gillette, Robert, 1994. "Promoting Work Through the EITC," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association, vol. 47(3), pages 591-607, September.
    3. Bruce D. Meyer & Dan T. Rosenbaum, 2001. "Welfare, the Earned Income Tax Credit, and the Labor Supply of Single Mothers," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 116(3), pages 1063-1114.
    4. Hackenberg, Helga & Wagner, Gert G., 1997. "Arbeitsanreize und Arbeitshemmnisse für Sozialhilfeempfänger," Wirtschaftsdienst – Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftspolitik (1949 - 2007), ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, vol. 77(4), pages 220-226.
    5. Stacy Dickert & Scott Houser & John Karl Scholz, 1995. "The Earned Income Tax Credit and Transfer Programs: A Study of Labor Market and Program Participation," NBER Chapters, in: Tax Policy and the Economy, Volume 9, pages 1-50, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Rebecca M. Blank & David Card & Philip K. Robins, 1999. "Financial Incentives for Increasing Work and Income Among Low- Income Families," HEW 9902002, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. N. Eissa & H. W. Hoynes, "undated". "The Earned Income Tax Credit and the Labor Supply of Married Couples," Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers 1194-99, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty.
    8. Besley, Timothy & Coate, Stephen, 1992. "Workfare versus Welfare Incentive Arguments for Work Requirements in Poverty-Alleviation Programs," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 82(1), pages 249-261, March.
    9. Hans-Werner Sinn, 1996. "Social insurance, incentives and risk taking," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 3(3), pages 259-280, July.
    10. Nada Eissa & Jeffrey B. Liebman, 1996. "Labor Supply Response to the Earned Income Tax Credit," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 111(2), pages 605-637.
    11. Hauser, Richard, 1995. "Die Diskussion um die Reform der Sozialhilfe," Wirtschaftsdienst – Zeitschrift für Wirtschaftspolitik (1949 - 2007), ZBW - Leibniz Information Centre for Economics, vol. 75(8), pages 429-433.
    12. V. Joseph Hotz, 2003. "The Earned Income Tax Credit," NBER Chapters, in: Means-Tested Transfer Programs in the United States, pages 141-198, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    13. Scholz, John Karl, 1996. "In-Work Benefits in the United States: The Earned Income Tax Credit," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 106(434), pages 156-169, January.
    14. David T. Ellwood, 2000. "Anti-Poverty Policy for Families in the Next Century: From Welfare to Work--and Worries," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 14(1), pages 187-198, Winter.
    15. Wolfgang Ochel, 2000. "Steuergutschriften und Transfers an Arbeitnehmer im Niedriglohnbereich - der angelsächsische Weg zu mehr Beschäftigung und weniger Armut," ifo Schnelldienst, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 53(21), pages 13-23, July.
    16. Holtzblatt, Janet & McCubbin, Janet & Gillette, Robert, 1994. "Promoting Work Through the EITC," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association;National Tax Journal, vol. 47(3), pages 591-607, September.
    17. Robert Haveman & Barbara Wolfe, 2000. "Welfare to Work in the U.S.: A Model for Other Developed Nations?," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 7(1), pages 95-114, February.
    18. Trabert, Lioba, 1999. "Make Work Pay - Die Wirkungen der Kombilohnkonzepte in den USA und in Grossbritanien," Wirtschaft im Wandel, Halle Institute for Economic Research (IWH), vol. 5(11), pages 9-16.
    19. Peter, Waltraut, 2000. "Das deutsche Sozialhilfesystem: Im Spannungsfeld zwischen sozialer Fürsorge und Hilfe zur Arbeit," IW-Trends – Vierteljahresschrift zur empirischen Wirtschaftsforschung, Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft (IW) / German Economic Institute, vol. 27(2), pages 57-70.
    20. B. L. Wolfe, "undated". "Incentives, Challenges, and Dilemmas of TANF," Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers 1209-00, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Lars Calmfors, 2004. "Activation versus Other Employment Policies – Lessons for Germany," CESifo Forum, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 5(02), pages 35-42, October.
    2. Wolfgang Ochel, 2001. "Unternehmensdienstleistungen als Motor für Wachstum und Beschäftigung," ifo Schnelldienst, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 54(09), pages 13-20, July.
    3. Lars Calmfors, 2004. "Activation versus Other Employment Policies – Lessons for Germany," CESifo Forum, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 5(2), pages 35-42, October.
    4. Stefan Boeters & Nicole Gürtzgen & Reinhold Schnabel, 2006. "Reforming Social Welfare in Germany: An Applied General Equilibrium Analysis," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 7(4), pages 363-388, November.
    5. Rebecca M. Blank, 2003. "U.S. Welfare Reform: What's Relevant for Europe?," CESifo Economic Studies, CESifo, vol. 49(1), pages 49-74.
    6. Schneider, Hilmar & Uhlendorff, Arne & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2010. "Mit Workfare aus der Sozialhilfe? Lehren aus einem Modellprojekt," IZA Standpunkte 33, Institute of Labor Economics (IZA).
    7. Wolfgang Ochel, 2005. "Welfare‐to‐Work Experiences with Specific Work‐First Programmes in Selected Countries," International Social Security Review, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 58(4), pages 67-93, October.
    8. Jacobebbinghaus, Peter & Steiner, Viktor, 2003. "Reforming Social Welfare as We Know It? A Microsimulation Study for Germany," ZEW Discussion Papers 03-33, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research.
    9. Stefan Boeters & Nicole Gürtzgen & Reinhold Schnabel, 2006. "Reforming Social Welfare in Germany: An Applied General Equilibrium Analysis," German Economic Review, Verein für Socialpolitik, vol. 7(4), pages 363-388, November.
    10. Christian Holzner & Wolfgang Ochel & Martin Werding, 2003. "Vom OFFENSIV-Gesetz zur "Aktivierenden Sozialhilfe" : Ein Konzept zur Reform der Arbeitsmarkt- und Sozialpolitik als Beitrag zu mehr Beschäftigung und Wachstum ; Studie im Auftrag der hessis," ifo Forschungsberichte, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, number 17.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Richard Blundell & Hilary W. Hoynes, 2004. "Has 'In-Work' Benefit Reform Helped the Labor Market?," NBER Chapters, in: Seeking a Premier Economy: The Economic Effects of British Economic Reforms, 1980-2000, pages 411-460, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Wolfgang Ochel, 2000. "Employment-conditional tax credit and benefit systems," CESifo Forum, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 1(3), pages 35-41, October.
    3. Timothy M. Smeeding & Katherin Ross Phillips & Michael O'Connor, 1999. "The EITC: Expectation, Knowledge, Use, and Economic and Social Mobility," Center for Policy Research Working Papers 13, Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University.
    4. David T. Ellwood, 1999. "The Impact of the Earned Income Tax Credit and Social Policy Reforms on Work, Marriage, and Living Arrangements," JCPR Working Papers 124, Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research.
    5. Michael Keen, 1997. "Peculiar institutions: A British perspective on tax policy in the United States," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 18(4), pages 371-400, November.
    6. Rebecca M. Blank & David T. Ellwood, 2001. "The Clinton Legacy for America's Poor," NBER Working Papers 8437, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    7. Wolfgang Ochel, 2000. "Employment-conditional tax credit and benefit systems," CESifo Forum, ifo Institute - Leibniz Institute for Economic Research at the University of Munich, vol. 1(03), pages 35-41, October.
    8. Stacy Dickert-Conlin & Douglas Holtz-Eakin, 1999. "Employee-Based versus Employer-Based Subsidies to Low-Wage Workers: A Public Finance Perspective," JCPR Working Papers 79, Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research.
    9. Neumark, David & Wascher, William, 2001. "Using the EITC to Help Poor Families: New Evidence and a Comparison With the Minimum Wage," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association;National Tax Journal, vol. 54(2), pages 281-318, June.
    10. N. Eissa & H. W. Hoynes, "undated". "The Earned Income Tax Credit and the Labor Supply of Married Couples," Institute for Research on Poverty Discussion Papers 1194-99, University of Wisconsin Institute for Research on Poverty.
    11. Stacy Dickert-Conlin & Douglas Holtz-Eakin, 1999. "Helping the Working Poor: Employer- vs. Employee-Based Subsidies," Center for Policy Research Policy Briefs 14, Center for Policy Research, Maxwell School, Syracuse University.
    12. David Neumark & William Wascher, 2000. "Using the EITC to Increase Family Earnings: New Evidence and a Comparison with the Minimum Wage," JCPR Working Papers 134, Northwestern University/University of Chicago Joint Center for Poverty Research.
    13. Cancian, Maria & Levinson, Arik, 2006. "Labor Supply Effects of the Earned Income Tax Credit: Evidence From Wisconsin's Supplemental Benefit for Families With Three Children," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association;National Tax Journal, vol. 59(4), pages 781-800, December.
    14. Meyer, Bruce D. & Rosenbaum, Dan T., 2000. "Making Single Mothers Work: Recent Tax and Welfare Policy and Its Effects," National Tax Journal, National Tax Association;National Tax Journal, vol. 53(4), pages 1027-1062, December.
    15. V. Joseph Hotz, 2003. "The Earned Income Tax Credit," NBER Chapters, in: Means-Tested Transfer Programs in the United States, pages 141-198, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    16. Maria Cancian & Arik Levinson, 2002. "Labor Supply and Participation Effects of the Earned Income Tax Credit: Evidence form the National Survey of America's Families and Wisconsin's Supplemental Benefit for Families with Three Children," Working Papers gueconwpa~02-02-08, Georgetown University, Department of Economics.
    17. V. Joseph Hotz & John Karl Scholz, 2006. "Examining the Effect of the Earned Income Tax Credit on the Labor Market Participation of Families on Welfare," NBER Working Papers 11968, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    18. Emmanuel Saez, 2002. "Optimal Income Transfer Programs: Intensive versus Extensive Labor Supply Responses," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 117(3), pages 1039-1073.
    19. Eissa, Nada & Kleven, Henrik Jacobsen & Kreiner, Claus Thustrup, 2008. "Evaluation of four tax reforms in the United States: Labor supply and welfare effects for single mothers," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(3-4), pages 795-816, April.
    20. Adam Looney, 2005. "The effects of welfare reform and related policies on single mothers' welfare use and employment," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2005-45, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).

    More about this item

    JEL classification:

    • I38 - Health, Education, and Welfare - - Welfare, Well-Being, and Poverty - - - Government Programs; Provision and Effects of Welfare Programs
    • J31 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Wage Level and Structure; Wage Differentials
    • J38 - Labor and Demographic Economics - - Wages, Compensation, and Labor Costs - - - Public Policy

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:mhr:finarc:urn:sici:0015-2218(2002/200302)59:1_91:wtwitu_2.0.tx_2-8. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Thomas Wolpert). General contact details of provider: https://www.mohrsiebeck.com/fa .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.