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Capital Markets and the Exchange Rate with Special Reference to the Dollarization Debate in Latin America

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  • Calvo, Guillermo A

Abstract

The paper reviews the main challenges faced by policymakers in emerging market economies, EM, in light of recent financial crises, and taking into account salient factors like the existence of partial dollarization, imperfect credibility, weak financial systems, and contagion. The standard theory of optimal currency areas is discussed and criticized for omitting the above factors. When these factors are taken into account, an extreme foreign exchange regime like dollarization is shown to become much more attractive. The paper discusses the pros and cons of dollarization and, among other things, shows that the lack of a lender of last resort is not necessarily a major drawback in EM. The paper also discusses inflation targeting, IT. In a formal model, it is shown that IT could be subject to credibility problems similar to those found in exchange rate-based stabilization programs.

Suggested Citation

  • Calvo, Guillermo A, 2001. "Capital Markets and the Exchange Rate with Special Reference to the Dollarization Debate in Latin America," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 33(2), pages 312-334, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:mcb:jmoncb:v:33:y:2001:i:2:p:312-34
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    1. Guillermo A. Calvo & Leonardo Leiderman & Carmen M. Reinhart, 1996. "Inflows of Capital to Developing Countries in the 1990s," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 10(2), pages 123-139, Spring.
    2. Guillermo A. Calvo & Carmen M. Reinhart, 2002. "Fear of Floating," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 117(2), pages 379-408.
    3. Guillermo A. Calvo, 1998. "CAPITAL FLOWS AND CAPITAL-MARKET CRISES: The Simple Economics of Sudden Stops," Journal of Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 1(1), pages 35-54, November.
    4. Edison, Hali & Reinhart, Carmen M., 2001. "Stopping hot money," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(2), pages 533-553, December.
    5. Reinhart, Carmen M. & Dunaway, Steven, "undated". "Dealing with Capital Inflows Are There Any Lessons?," WIDER Working Papers 295321, United Nations University, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    6. Guillermo A. Calvo & Pablo E. Guidotti, 1993. "On the Flexibility of Monetary Policy: The Case of the Optimal Inflation Tax," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 60(3), pages 667-687.
    7. Laura E. Kodres & Matthew Pritsker, 1998. "A rational expectations model of financial contagion," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 1998-48, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    8. Steve H. Hanke & Kurt Schuler, 1999. "A Monetary Constitution for Argentina: Rules for Dollarization," Cato Journal, Cato Journal, Cato Institute, vol. 18(3), pages 405-419, Winter.
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