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Measuring the Effect of Federal Research Funding on Private Donations at Research Universities: Is Federal Research Funding More than a Substitute for Private Donations?

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  • A. Payne

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Abstract

The nature of federal research funding has changed in the United States over the last 30 years. In part, federal research funding has changed in the distribution of funding across disciplines and across universities. Federal funding to universities with historically low levels of funding has also experienced greater growth than those universities with historically high levels of funding. In addition, universities have become more involved in the political process with respect to the allocation of funding for higher education. As the nature of government funding changes, this paper questions its effect on private donations to research and non-research universities. The general presumption of much of the existing theoretical work is that government and private funding for charitable goods are substitutes. Limited evidence exists to suggest, in some circumstances, there may be a positive correlation between these two sources of funding. Potentially, because the government undertakes the expense to gather information about the research universities, and engages in such activities as peer-review of research proposals, the government through its grant awards may provide a signal of quality of research or other information to donors that is less noisy than that available to private donors. Similarly, there may be other types of spillover effects from research funding to private donations. In this case, a change in government grants has both a positive and negative effect on private donations, suggesting a positive correlation between private and public donations if the effect from the dissemination of information is greater than the substitution effect of government grants. I examine data for private and public universities in the United States to measure the relationship between private and public donations under a fixed-effects OLS regression. I explore issues of bias from endogeneity or omitted variables and report the results from a two stage least squares regression in which I use a set of measures that affect federal research funding but not private donations. Regardless of the specification, the results suggest private and public donations are positively correlated for research universities and negatively correlated for non-research institutions. On average, increasing federal research funding by one dollar increases private donations by 65 cents at research universities, decreases private donations by 9 cents at universities whose highest degree granted is a masters, and decreases private donations by 45 cents at liberal arts colleges. Copyright Kluwer Academic Publishers 2001

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  • A. Payne, 2001. "Measuring the Effect of Federal Research Funding on Private Donations at Research Universities: Is Federal Research Funding More than a Substitute for Private Donations?," International Tax and Public Finance, Springer;International Institute of Public Finance, vol. 8(5), pages 731-751, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:itaxpf:v:8:y:2001:i:5:p:731-751
    DOI: 10.1023/A:1012843227003
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Andreoni, James & Payne, A. Abigail, 2011. "Is crowding out due entirely to fundraising? Evidence from a panel of charities," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 95(5), pages 334-343.
    2. Anwar Shah & Karim Khan & Muhammad Tariq Majeed, 2015. "The Effects of Informational Framing on Charitable Pledges - Experimental Evidence from a Fund Raising Campaign," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 54(1), pages 35-54.
    3. Rosenbloom, Joshua L. & Ginther, Donna K., 2016. "Show me the Money: Federal R&D Support for Academic Chemistry, 1990–2009," ISU General Staff Papers 201612290800001018, Iowa State University, Department of Economics.
    4. Lee, Chul-In, 2007. "Does provision of public rental housing crowd out private housing investment? A panel VAR approach," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 16(1), pages 1-20, March.
    5. Maryann Feldman & Lauren Lanahan, 2013. "State Science Policy Experiments," NBER Chapters,in: The Changing Frontier: Rethinking Science and Innovation Policy, pages 287-317 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Andreoni, James & Payne, Abigail & Smith, Sarah, 2014. "Do grants to charities crowd out other income? Evidence from the UK," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 114(C), pages 75-86.
    7. James Andreoni, 2006. "Leadership Giving in Charitable Fund-Raising," Journal of Public Economic Theory, Association for Public Economic Theory, vol. 8(1), pages 1-22, January.
    8. Margaret E. Blume-Kohout & Krishna B. Kumar & Neeraj Sood, 2009. "Federal Life Sciences Funding and University R&D," NBER Working Papers 15146, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    9. Lauren Lanahan, 2016. "Multilevel public funding for small business innovation: a review of US state SBIR match programs," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 41(2), pages 220-249, April.
    10. Rosenbloom, Joshua L. & Ginther, Donna K., 2017. "Show me the Money: Federal R&D Support for Academic Chemistry, 1990–2009," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 46(8), pages 1454-1464.
    11. repec:spr:sochwe:v:49:y:2017:i:2:d:10.1007_s00355-017-1070-8 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Rausser, Gordon C. & Papineau, Maya, 2008. "Managing R&D risk in renewable energy," Transition to a Bio Economy Conferences, Risk, Infrastructure and Industry Evolution Conference, June 24-25, 2008, Berkeley, California 48726, Farm Foundation.
    13. repec:clh:resear:v:5:y:2012:i:34 is not listed on IDEAS
    14. James Andreoni & Abigail Payne, 2007. "Crowding out Both Sides of the Philanthropy Market: Evidence from a Panel of Charities," Levine's Bibliography 122247000000001769, UCLA Department of Economics.
    15. Yildirim, Huseyin, 2014. "Andreoni–McGuire algorithm and the limits of warm-glow giving," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 114(C), pages 101-107.
    16. Achyut Kafle & Stephen K. Swallow & Elizabeth C. Smith, 2015. "Does Public Funding Affect Preferred Tradeoffs and Crowd-In or Crowd-Out Willingness to Pay? A Watershed Management Case," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 60(3), pages 471-495, March.
    17. Crumpler, Heidi & Grossman, Philip J., 2008. "An experimental test of warm glow giving," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 92(5-6), pages 1011-1021, June.
    18. Eckel, Catherine C. & Grossman, Philip J. & Johnston, Rachel M., 2005. "An experimental test of the crowding out hypothesis," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(8), pages 1543-1560, August.
    19. Bae, Kee-Hong & Kim, Seung-Bo & Kim, Woochan, 2012. "Family control and expropriation at not-for-profit organizations: evidence from korean private universities," MPRA Paper 44029, University Library of Munich, Germany.

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