IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

Voting on voting with the feet: a cross-county analysis of the Tennessee popular referenda to secede from the union


  • Jac Heckelman


  • John Dinan


We analyze a unique case of voting on voting with the feet, when Tennessee twice considered secession from the Union in 1861 by popular referenda. The initial votes to hold a convention, and to send disunion delegates to a convention, failed, but after the Confederate states adopted a new constitution and the bombing of Fort Sumter took place, a second set of votes to separate from the union, and to join the confederacy, passed. Regression results support the importance of both economic interests and political tendencies, along with regional differences, in explaining the variation in votes across counties. Class distinctions were not found to be significant. Copyright Springer Science + Business Media, LLC 2007

Suggested Citation

  • Jac Heckelman & John Dinan, 2007. "Voting on voting with the feet: a cross-county analysis of the Tennessee popular referenda to secede from the union," Constitutional Political Economy, Springer, vol. 18(2), pages 83-97, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:kap:copoec:v:18:y:2007:i:2:p:83-97 DOI: 10.1007/s10602-007-9014-4

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: Access to full text is restricted to subscribers.

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Dinan, John & Heckelman, Jac C., 2005. "The anti-tobacco movement in the Progressive Era: A case study of direct democracy in Oregon," Explorations in Economic History, Elsevier, vol. 42(4), pages 529-546, October.
    2. Charles M. Tiebout, 1956. "A Pure Theory of Local Expenditures," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 64, pages 416-416.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    More about this item


    Direct democracy; Secession; Sorting; Voting with the feet; D71; H1; N41;

    JEL classification:

    • D71 - Microeconomics - - Analysis of Collective Decision-Making - - - Social Choice; Clubs; Committees; Associations
    • H1 - Public Economics - - Structure and Scope of Government
    • N41 - Economic History - - Government, War, Law, International Relations, and Regulation - - - U.S.; Canada: Pre-1913


    Access and download statistics


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:kap:copoec:v:18:y:2007:i:2:p:83-97. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Sonal Shukla) or (Rebekah McClure). General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.