Price Versus Production Postponement: Capacity and Competition
This article presents a comparative analysis of possible postponement strategies in a two-stage decision model where firms make three decisions: capacity investment, production (inventory) quantity, and price. Typically, investments are made while the demand curve is uncertain. The strategies differ in the timing of the operational decisions relative to the realization of uncertainty. We show how competition, uncertainty, and the timing of operational decisions influence the strategic investment decision of the firm and its value. In contrast to production postponement, price postponement makes the investment and production (inventory) decisions relatively insensitive to uncertainty. This suggests that managers can make optimal capacity decisions by deterministic reasoning if they have some price flexibility. Under price postponement, additional postponement of production has relatively small incremental value. Therefore, it may be worthwhile to consider flexible ex-post pricing before production postponement reengineering. While more postponement increases firm value, it is counterintuitive that this also makes the optimal capacity decision more sensitive to uncertainty. We highlight the different impact of more timely information, which leads to higher investment and inventories, and of reduced demand uncertainty, which decreases investment and inventories. Our analysis suggests appropriateness conditions for simple make-to-stock and make-to-order strategies. We also present technical sufficiency and uniqueness conditions. Under price postponement, these results extend to oligopolistic and perfect competition for which pure equilibria are derived. Interestingly, the relative value of operational postponement techniques seems to increase as the industry becomes more competitive.
Volume (Year): 45 (1999)
Issue (Month): 12 (December)
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: 7240 Parkway Drive, Suite 300, Hanover, MD 21076 USA|
Web page: http://www.informs.org/
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Deneckere, Raymond & Marvel, Howard P & Peck, James, 1997.
"Demand Uncertainty and Price Maintenance: Markdowns as Destructive Competition,"
American Economic Review,
American Economic Association, vol. 87(4), pages 619-641, September.
- Deneckere, R. & Marvel, H.P. & Peck, J., 1995. "Demand Uncertainty and Price Maintenace : Markdowns as Destructive Competition," Working papers 9507, Wisconsin Madison - Social Systems.
- Howard P. Marvel & Raymond Deneckere & James Peck, 1995. "Demand Uncertainty and Price Maintainance: Markdowns as Destructive Competition," Working Papers 018, Ohio State University, Department of Economics.
- Butz, David A, 1997. "Vertical Price Controls with Uncertain Demand," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 40(2), pages 433-459, October.
- Hviid, Morten, 1991. "Capacity constrained duopolies, uncertain demand and non-existence of pure strategy equilibria," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 183-190, July.
- Morten Hviid, 1990. "Sequential capacity and price choices in a duopoly model with demand uncertainty," Journal of Economics, Springer, vol. 51(2), pages 121-144, June.
- Morten Hviid, 1989. "Sequential Capacity and Price Choices in a Duopoly Model with Demand Uncertainty," Discussion Papers 89-09, University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics.
- Guillermo Gallego & Garrett van Ryzin, 1994. "Optimal Dynamic Pricing of Inventories with Stochastic Demand over Finite Horizons," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 40(8), pages 999-1020, August.
- Krishnan S. Anand & Haim Mendelson, 1998. "Postponement and Information in a Supply Chain," Discussion Papers 1222, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
- Raymond Deneckere & Howard P. Marvel & James Peck, 1996. "Demand Uncertainty, Inventories, and Resale Price Maintenance," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 111(3), pages 885-913.
- Howard P. Marvel & Raymond Deneckere & James Peck, 1995. "Demand Uncertainty, Inventories, and Resale Price Maintainance," Working Papers 019, Ohio State University, Department of Economics.
- Hau L. Lee & Christopher S. Tang, 1998. "Variability Reduction Through Operations Reversal," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 44(2), pages 162-172, February.
- Raymond Deneckere & James Peck, 1995. "Competition Over Price and Service Rate When Demand is Stochastic: A Strategic Analysis," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 26(1), pages 148-162, Spring.
- Raymond Deneckere & James Peck, 1992. "Competition over Price and Service Rate when Demand is Stochastic: A Strategic Analysis," Discussion Papers 990, Northwestern University, Center for Mathematical Studies in Economics and Management Science.
- T. M. Whitin, 1955. "Inventory Control and Price Theory," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 2(1), pages 61-68, October.
- Yakov Amihud & Haim Mendelson, 1983. "Price Smoothing and Inventory," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 50(1), pages 87-98.
- Peck, James, 1996. "Demand Uncertainty, Incomplete Markets, and the Optimality of Rationing," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 70(2), pages 342-363, August.
- Paul Klemperer & Margaret Meyer, 1986. "Price Competition vs. Quantity Competition: The Role of Uncertainty," RAND Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 17(4), pages 618-638, Winter.
- Amihud, Yakov & Mendelson, Haim, 1983. "Multiperiod sales-production decisions under uncertainty," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 5(1), pages 249-265, February.
- V. Padmanabhan & I. P. L. Png, 1997. "Manufacturer's Return Policies and Retail Competition," Marketing Science, INFORMS, vol. 16(1), pages 81-94.
- Esther Gal-Or, 1987. "First Mover Disadvantages with Private Information," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 54(2), pages 279-292.
- Jan A. Van Mieghem, 1999. "Coordinating Investment, Production, and Subcontracting," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 45(7), pages 954-971, July.
- David M. Kreps & Jose A. Scheinkman, 1983. "Quantity Precommitment and Bertrand Competition Yield Cournot Outcomes," Bell Journal of Economics, The RAND Corporation, vol. 14(2), pages 326-337, Autumn. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:inm:ormnsc:v:45:y:1999:i:12:p:1639-1649. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Mirko Janc)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.