Dynamic Price Competition with Fixed Capacities
Many revenue management (RM) industries are characterized by (a) fixed capacities in the short term (e.g., hotel rooms, seats on an airline flight), (b) homogeneous products (e.g., two airline flights between the same cities at similar times), and (c) customer purchasing decisions largely influenced by price. Competition in these industries is also very high even with just two or three direct competitors in a market. However, RM competition is not well understood and practically all known implementations of RM software and most published models of RM do not explicitly model competition. For this reason, there has been considerable recent interest and research activity to understand RM competition. In this paper we study price competition for an oligopoly in a dynamic setting, where each of the sellers has a fixed number of units available for sale over a fixed number of periods. Demand is stochastic, and depending on how itevolves,sellersmaychangetheirpricesatanytime. This reflects the fact that firms constantly, and almost costlessly, change their prices (alternately, allocations at a price in quantity-based RM), reacting either to updates in their estimates of market demand, competitor prices, or inventory levels. We first prove existence of a unique subgame-perfect equilibrium for a duopoly. In equilibrium, in each state sellers engage in Bertrand competition, so that the seller with the lowest reservation value ends up selling a unit at a price that is equal to the equilibrium reservation value of the competitor. This structure hence extends the marginal-value concept of bid-price control, used in many RM implementations, to a competitive model. In addition, we show that the seller with the lowest capacity sells all its units first. Furthermore, we extend the results transparently ton firms and perform a number of numerical comparative statics exploiting the uniqueness of the subgame-perfect equilibrium.
|Date of creation:||Feb 2010|
|Date of revision:|
|Contact details of provider:|| Postal: Ramon Trias Fargas, 25-27, 08005 Barcelona|
Phone: +34 93 542-1222
Fax: +34 93 542-1223
Web page: http://www.barcelonagse.eu
More information through EDIRC
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- De Francesco, Massimo A. & Salvadori, Neri, 2008.
"Bertrand-Edgeworth games under oligopoly with a complete characterization for the triopoly,"
10767, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 26 Sep 2008.
- De Francesco, Massimo A. & Salvadori, Neri, 2008. "Bertrand-Edgeworth games under oligopoly with a complete characterization for the triopoly," MPRA Paper 8634, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Marc Dudey, 1992. "Dynamic Edgeworth-Bertrand Competition," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(4), pages 1461-1477.
- Morten Hviid, 1990.
"Sequential capacity and price choices in a duopoly model with demand uncertainty,"
Journal of Economics,
Springer, vol. 51(2), pages 121-144, June.
- Morten Hviid, 1989. "Sequential Capacity and Price Choices in a Duopoly Model with Demand Uncertainty," Discussion Papers 89-09, University of Copenhagen. Department of Economics.
- Osborne, Martin J. & Pitchik, Carolyn, 1983.
"Price Competition in a Capacity-Constrained Duopoly,"
83-08, C.V. Starr Center for Applied Economics, New York University.
- Osborne, Martin J. & Pitchik, Carolyn, 1986. "Price competition in a capacity-constrained duopoly," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 38(2), pages 238-260, April.
- Hirata, Daisuke, 2008. "Bertrand-Edgeworth Equilibrium in Oligopoly," MPRA Paper 7946, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- de Frutos, Maria-Angeles & Fabra, Natalia, 2007.
"Endogenous Capacities and Price Competition: The Role of Demand Uncertainty,"
CEPR Discussion Papers
6096, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- de Frutos, María-Ángeles & Fabra, Natalia, 2011. "Endogenous capacities and price competition: The role of demand uncertainty," International Journal of Industrial Organization, Elsevier, vol. 29(4), pages 399-411, July.
- Hviid, Morten, 1991. "Capacity constrained duopolies, uncertain demand and non-existence of pure strategy equilibria," European Journal of Political Economy, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 183-190, July.
- Pradeep K. Chintagunta & Vithala R. Rao, 1996. "Pricing Strategies in a Dynamic Duopoly: A Differential Game Model," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 42(11), pages 1501-1514, November.
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:bge:wpaper:425. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Bruno Guallar)
If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.
If the full references list an item that is present in RePEc, but the system did not link to it, you can help with this form.
If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.
Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.