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Socio-Economic Determinants of Crimes: A Cross-Sectional Study of Punjab Districts


  • Ayesha Haider

    (National College of Business Administration and Economics, Lahore, Pakistan.)

  • Amjad Ali

    (National College of Business Administration and Economics, Lahore, Pakistan.)


Purpose: This study examines some socio-economic determinants of crimes in all districts of Punjab, Pakistan for the period2010-2011. The selected socio-economic explanatory variables are population density, education, unemployment, industrialization and remittances and dependent variable is reported crimes. Methodology: Ordinary Least Square (OLS) method is used for empirical analysis as the data set and all variables fulfill the assumptions of simple OLS. Findings: The results show that population density and unemployment have positive and significant impact on crimes. Level of education and amount of remittances are inversely related to crimes in all districts of Punjab. The results indicate that the most dense and populated areas provide more chances for criminals to commit crimes. Recommendations: So for reducing crimes in Punjab province the government should improve the socio-economic structure in Punjab, Pakistan.

Suggested Citation

  • Ayesha Haider & Amjad Ali, 2015. "Socio-Economic Determinants of Crimes: A Cross-Sectional Study of Punjab Districts," International Journal of Economics and Empirical Research (IJEER), The Economics and Social Development Organization (TESDO), vol. 3(11), pages 550-560, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:ijr:journl:v:3:y:2015:i:11:p:550-560

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Paolo Buonanno & Leone Leonida, 2006. "Education and crime: evidence from Italian regions," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 13(11), pages 709-713.
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    6. Hafiz Hanzla Jalil & Muhammad Mazhar Iqbal, 2010. "Urbanisation and Crime: A Case Study of Pakistan," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 49(4), pages 741-755.
    7. Brito, Steve & Corbacho, Ana & Osorio Rivas, Rene, 2014. "Remittances and the Impact on Crime in Mexico," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 6482, Inter-American Development Bank.
    8. Dutta, Mousumi & Husain, Zakir, 2009. "Determinants of crime rates: Crime Deterrence and Growth in post-liberalized India," MPRA Paper 14478, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    9. Entorf, Horst & Spengler, Hannes, 2000. "Socioeconomic and demographic factors of crime in Germany: Evidence from panel data of the German states," International Review of Law and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 20(1), pages 75-106, March.
    10. Nicolas Garcette, 2004. "Property Crime as A Redistributive Tool: The Case of Argentina," Econometric Society 2004 Latin American Meetings 197, Econometric Society.
    11. Fajnzylber, Pablo & Lederman, Daniel & Loayza, Norman, 2002. "Inequality and Violent Crime," Journal of Law and Economics, University of Chicago Press, vol. 45(1), pages 1-40, April.
    12. Steve Brito & Ana Corbacho & Rene Osorio Rivas, 2014. "Remittances and the Impact on Crime in Mexico," IDB Publications (Working Papers) 85093, Inter-American Development Bank.
    13. Ehrlich, Isaac, 1973. "Participation in Illegitimate Activities: A Theoretical and Empirical Investigation," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 81(3), pages 521-565, May-June.
    14. Syed Yasir Mahmood Gillani & Rana Ejaz Ali Khan & Abid Rashid Gill, 2011. "Unemployment and Property Crimes in Pakistan," Asian Economic and Financial Review, Asian Economic and Social Society, vol. 1(3), pages 124-133, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Fiaz Ahmad Sulehri & Muhammad Zahid Naeem, 2018. "The Role of Commercial Banks in Determining the Industrial Productivity in Pakistan:A Time Series Analysis," Bulletin of Business and Economics (BBE), Research Foundation for Humanity (RFH), vol. 7(4), pages 185-196, December.
    2. Muhammad Qasim & Zahid Pervaiz & A. R. Chaudhary, 2018. "Status of Human Development in Punjab (Pakistan)," Bulletin of Business and Economics (BBE), Research Foundation for Humanity (RFH), vol. 7(4), pages 138-155, December.
    3. Adeela Hussain & Muhammad Irfan Chani, 2018. "Remittances, Foreign Debt and Economic Growth: A Cross Country Analysis," Bulletin of Business and Economics (BBE), Research Foundation for Humanity (RFH), vol. 7(2), pages 59-71, June.
    4. Kassem, Mohamad & Ali, Amjad & Audi, Marc, 2019. "Unemployment Rate, Population Density and Crime Rate in Punjab (Pakistan): An Empirical Analysis," MPRA Paper 95964, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Rabia Liaqat & Hafiz Muhammad Abubakar Siddique & Iram Shehzadi, 2018. "Institutions and Economic Growth Nexus: A Cross Country Analysis," Bulletin of Business and Economics (BBE), Research Foundation for Humanity (RFH), vol. 7(2), pages 72-80, June.

    More about this item


    Crimes; Unemployment; Industrialization; Remittances;

    JEL classification:

    • O1 - Economic Development, Innovation, Technological Change, and Growth - - Economic Development


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