IDEAS home Printed from
   My bibliography  Save this article

On the Non-Compliance in the North Sea Cod Stock


  • Sebastian Villasante

    (Department of Applied Economics, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, University of Santiago de Compostela, Av. Burgo das Nacións s/n, 15782, Santiago de Compostela, Spain
    Centro Nacional Patagónico (CENPAT), CONICET, 9120 Puerto Madryn, Chubut, Argentina
    Campus Do Mar, International Campus of Excellence, Spain
    Karl-Göran Mäler Scholar, The Beijer Institute of Ecological Economics, P.O. Box 50005, SE-104 05, Stockholm, Sweden)

  • David Rodríguez-González

    (Campus Do Mar, International Campus of Excellence, Spain
    Department of Quantitative Economics, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, University of Santiago de Compostela Av. Burgo das Nacións s/n, 15782, Santiago de Compostela, Spain)

  • Manel Antelo

    (Campus Do Mar, International Campus of Excellence, Spain
    Department of Foundations of Economic Analysis, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, University of Santiago de Compostela, Av. Burgo das Nacións s/n, 15782, Santiago de Compostela, Spain)


This paper estimates the economic value of the North Sea cod ( Gadus morhua ) stock under recent catch and several recovery scenarios. The research presents results on: a) what the value of catches and biomass would have been if the EU fishing fleet had followed the International Council for the Exploration of the Sea scientific recommendations (SRs) and Total Allowable Catches (TACs) in the 1986–2010 period; and b) what the value of catches and biomass will be for the 2010–2022 period if the fleet follows the current Common Fisheries Policy Reform (CFPR). Results show that the actual economic value of the stock for the 1986–2010 period has been US$7 billion, which is substantially lower than what would have been predicted had the industry followed the SRs (US$20.7 billion) or approved TACs (US$19.5 billion). Similarly, if catches do not follow the SRs or the approved TACs for the 2010–2022 period the estimated economic value of the stock is predicted to be lower than if they had done so. Further, the losses of non-compliance increase even when a scenario of 50% reduction of discards under the new CFPR is considered. We also show that the status of the stock is strongly dependent on the trade-offs generated by both the non-compliance of scientific recommendations and by the short-term economic incentives of the fishing industry. With most fishery resources fully exploited or overexploited in Europe, opportunities for development lie primarily in restoring depleted stocks and catching fish more efficiently, as is the case of the North Sea cod stock.

Suggested Citation

  • Sebastian Villasante & David Rodríguez-González & Manel Antelo, 2013. "On the Non-Compliance in the North Sea Cod Stock," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 5(5), pages 1-20, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:5:y:2013:i:5:p:1974-1993:d:25429

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL:
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    1. World Bank & Food and Agriculture Organization, 2009. "The Sunken Billions : The Economic Justification for Fisheries Reform," World Bank Publications - Books, The World Bank Group, number 2596, December.
    2. Standal, Dag & Bouwer Utne, Ingrid, 2007. "Can cod farming affect cod fishing? A system evaluation of sustainability," Marine Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 527-534, July.
    3. Villasante, Sebastian & Sumaila, Ussif Rashid, 2010. "Estimating the effects of technological efficiency on the European fishing fleet," Marine Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(3), pages 720-722, May.
    4. Eero, Margit & Köster, Friedrich W. & Vinther, Morten, 2012. "Why is the Eastern Baltic cod recovering?," Marine Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(1), pages 235-240, January.
    5. Diekert, Florian K. & Hjermann, Dag Ø. & Nævdal, Eric & Stenseth, Nils Chr., 2010. "Non-cooperative exploitation of multi-cohort fisheries--The role of gear selectivity in the North-East Arctic cod fishery," Resource and Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 78-92, January.
    6. Rainer Froese, 2011. "Fishery reform slips through the net," Nature, Nature, vol. 475(7354), pages 7-7, July.
    7. Kraak, Sarah B.M. & Bailey, Nick & Cardinale, Massimiliano & Darby, Chris & De Oliveira, José A.A. & Eero, Margit & Graham, Norman & Holmes, Steven & Jakobsen, Tore & Kempf, Alexander & Kirkegaard, Es, 2013. "Lessons for fisheries management from the EU cod recovery plan," Marine Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(C), pages 200-213.
    8. Davies, R.W.D. & Rangeley, R., 2010. "Banking on cod: Exploring economic incentives for recovering Grand Banks and North Sea cod fisheries," Marine Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(1), pages 92-98, January.
    9. Khalilian, Setareh & Froese, Rainer & Proelss, Alexander & Requate, Till, 2010. "Designed for failure: A critique of the Common Fisheries Policy of the European Union," Marine Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(6), pages 1178-1182, November.
    10. Da Rocha, José-María & Cerviño, Santiago & Villasante, Sebastian, 2012. "The Common Fisheries Policy: An enforcement problem," Marine Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(6), pages 1309-1314.
    11. Ussif Rashid Sumaila & William Cheung & Andrew Dyck & Kamal Gueye & Ling Huang & Vicky Lam & Daniel Pauly & Thara Srinivasan & Wilf Swartz & Reginald Watson & Dirk Zeller, 2012. "Benefits of Rebuilding Global Marine Fisheries Outweigh Costs," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 7(7), pages 1-12, July.
    12. Schrank, William E., 2005. "The Newfoundland fishery: ten years after the moratorium," Marine Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(5), pages 407-420, September.
    13. F. Chapin & Steward Pickett & Mary Power & Robert Jackson & David Carter & Clifford Duke, 2011. "Earth stewardship: a strategy for social–ecological transformation to reverse planetary degradation," Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences, Springer;Association of Environmental Studies and Sciences, vol. 1(1), pages 44-53, March.
    14. Colin W. Clark & Gordon R. Munro & U. Rashid Sumaila, 2010. "Limits to the Privatization of Fishery Resources," Land Economics, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 86(2), pages 209-218.
    15. Villasante, Sebastián, 2012. "The management of the blue whiting fishery as complex social-ecological system: The Galician case," Marine Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(6), pages 1301-1308.
    16. Sterner, Thomas, 2007. "Unobserved diversity, depletion and irreversibility The importance of subpopulations for management of cod stocks," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 61(2-3), pages 566-574, March.
    17. Nicolás L. Gutiérrez & Ray Hilborn & Omar Defeo, 2011. "Leadership, social capital and incentives promote successful fisheries," Nature, Nature, vol. 470(7334), pages 386-389, February.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Dana Miller & Stefano Mariani, 2013. "Irish fish, Irish people: roles and responsibilities for an emptying ocean," Environment, Development and Sustainability: A Multidisciplinary Approach to the Theory and Practice of Sustainable Development, Springer, vol. 15(2), pages 529-546, April.
    2. Santiago, Jose L. & Ballesteros, Marta A. & Chapela, Rosa & Silva, Cristina & Nielsen, Kåre N. & Rangel, Mafalda & Erzini, Karim & Wise, Laura & Campos, Aida & Borges, Maria F. & Sala, Antonello & Vir, 2015. "Is Europe ready for a results-based approach to fisheries management? The voice of stakeholders," Marine Policy, Elsevier, vol. 56(C), pages 86-97.
    3. Stoeven, Max T. & Quaas, Martin F., 2012. "Privatizing renewable resources: Who gains, who loses?," Economics Working Papers 2012-02, Christian-Albrechts-University of Kiel, Department of Economics.
    4. Hans Frost & Peder Andersen & Ayoe Hoff, 2013. "Management of Complex Fisheries: Lessons Learned from a Simulation Model," Canadian Journal of Agricultural Economics/Revue canadienne d'agroeconomie, Canadian Agricultural Economics Society/Societe canadienne d'agroeconomie, vol. 61(2), pages 283-307, June.
    5. Andrés M Cisneros-Montemayor & Daniel Pauly & Lauren V Weatherdon & Yoshitaka Ota, 2016. "A Global Estimate of Seafood Consumption by Coastal Indigenous Peoples," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 11(12), pages 1-16, December.
    6. Sean Pascoe & Trevor Hutton & Eriko Hoshino & Miriana Sporcic & Satoshi Yamasaki & Tom Kompas, 2020. "Effectiveness of harvest strategies in achieving multiple management objectives in a multispecies fishery," Australian Journal of Agricultural and Resource Economics, Australian Agricultural and Resource Economics Society, vol. 64(3), pages 700-723, July.
    7. Stanford, Richard J. & Wiryawan, Budy & Bengen, Dietriech G. & Febriamansyah, Rudi & Haluan, John, 2014. "Improving livelihoods in fishing communities of West Sumatra: More than just boats and machines," Marine Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 16-25.
    8. Rivera, Antonella & Gelcich, Stefan & García-Florez, Lucia & Alcázar, Jorge Luis & Acuña, José Luis, 2014. "Co-management in Europe: Insights from the gooseneck barnacle fishery in Asturias, Spain," Marine Policy, Elsevier, vol. 50(PA), pages 300-308.
    9. Tahvonen, Olli & Quaas, Martin F. & Voss, Rüdiger, 2018. "Harvesting selectivity and stochastic recruitment in economic models of age-structured fisheries," Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, Elsevier, vol. 92(C), pages 659-676.
    10. Nielsen, Max & Ravensbeck, Lars & Nielsen, Rasmus, 2014. "Green growth in fisheries," Marine Policy, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 43-52.
    11. Kanik, Zafer & Kucuksenel, Serkan, 2016. "Quota implementation of the maximum sustainable yield for age-structured fisheries," MPRA Paper 70535, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    12. Colla-De-Robertis, Esteban & Da-Rocha, Jose-Maria & García-Cutrin, Javier & Gutiérrez, María-José & Prellezo, Raul, 2018. "A bayesian estimation of the economic effects of the Common Fisheries Policy on the Galician Fleet: a dynamic stochastic general equilibrium approach," MPRA Paper 89944, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. Thomas A Oliver & Kirsten L L Oleson & Hajanaina Ratsimbazafy & Daniel Raberinary & Sophie Benbow & Alasdair Harris, 2015. "Positive Catch & Economic Benefits of Periodic Octopus Fishery Closures: Do Effective, Narrowly Targeted Actions ‘Catalyze’ Broader Management?," PLOS ONE, Public Library of Science, vol. 10(6), pages 1-24, June.
    14. Surís-Regueiro, Juan C. & Garza-Gil, M. Dolores & Varela-Lafuente, Manuel M., 2014. "Socio-economic quantification of fishing in a European urban area: The case of Vigo," Marine Policy, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 347-358.
    15. Carpenter, Griffin & Kleinjans, Richard & Villasante, Sebastian & O’Leary, Bethan C., 2016. "Landing the blame: The influence of EU Member States on quota setting," Marine Policy, Elsevier, vol. 64(C), pages 9-15.
    16. Schaap, Robbert & Richter, Andries, 2019. "Overcapitalization and social norms of cooperation in a small-scale fishery," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 166(C), pages 1-1.
    17. Wisdom Akpalu, 2013. "Foreign Aid and Sustainable Fisheries Management in Sub-Saharan Africa," WIDER Working Paper Series wp-2013-100, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    18. Simon Levin & Anastasios Xepapadeas, 2021. "On the Coevolution of Economic and Ecological Systems," Annual Review of Resource Economics, Annual Reviews, vol. 13(1), pages 355-377, October.
    19. Richter, Andries & Dakos, Vasilis, 2015. "Profit fluctuations signal eroding resilience of natural resources," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 117(C), pages 12-21.
    20. Craig Leisher & Leah H. Samberg & Pieter Van Buekering & M. Sanjayan, 2013. "Focal Areas for Measuring the Human Well-Being Impacts of a Conservation Initiative," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 5(3), pages 1-14, March.


    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gam:jsusta:v:5:y:2013:i:5:p:1974-1993:d:25429. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: MDPI Indexing Manager (email available below). General contact details of provider: .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.