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Neighborhood Danger, Parental Monitoring, Harsh Parenting, and Child Aggression in Nine Countries


  • Ann T. Skinner

    () (Center for Child and Family Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA)

  • Dario Bacchini

    () (Department of Psychology, Second University of Naples, 81100 Caserta, Italy)

  • Jennifer E. Lansford

    () (Center for Child and Family Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA)

  • Jennifer W. Godwin

    () (Center for Child and Family Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA)

  • Emma Sorbring

    () (Department of Psychology, University West, 46186 Trollhättan, Sweden)

  • Sombat Tapanya

    () (Department of Psychiatry, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200, Thailand)

  • Liliana Maria Uribe Tirado

    () (Consultorio Psicológico Popular, Universidad de San Buenaventura, Carrera 56C No. 51-90, Medellín, Colombia)

  • Arnaldo Zelli

    () (Department of Education Sciences, Foro Italico University of Rome, 00135 Rome, Italy)

  • Liane Peña Alampay

    () (Department of Psychology, Ateneo de Manila University, Quezon City 1108, Philippines)

  • Suha M. Al-Hassan

    () (Queen Rania Faculty for Childhood, The Hashemite University, Zarqa 13115, Jordan)

  • Anna Silvia Bombi

    () (Department of Social and Devlopmental Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy)

  • Marc H. Bornstein

    () (Child and Family Research Program in Developmental Neuroscience, Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, Bethesda, MD 20892, USA)

  • Lei Chang

    () (Department of Educational Psychology, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong)

  • Kirby Deater-Deckard

    () (Department of Psychology, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg, VA 24061, USA)

  • Laura Di Giunta

    () (Department of Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy)

  • Kenneth A. Dodge

    () (Center for Child and Family Policy, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708, USA)

  • Patrick S. Malone

    () (Department of Psychology, University of South Carolina, Colombia, SC 29208, USA)

  • Maria Concetta Miranda

    () (Department of Psychology, Second University of Naples, 81100 Caserta, Italy)

  • Paul Oburu

    () (Department of Education Psychology, Maseno University, Maseno, Kenya)

  • Concetta Pastorelli

    () (Department of Psychology, Sapienza University of Rome, 00185 Rome, Italy)


Exposure to neighborhood danger during childhood has negative effects that permeate multiple dimensions of childhood. The current study examined whether mothers’, fathers’, and children’s perceptions of neighborhood danger are related to child aggression, whether parental monitoring moderates this relation, and whether harsh parenting mediates this relation. Interviews were conducted with a sample of 1293 children (age M = 10.68, SD = 0.66; 51% girls) and their mothers ( n = 1282) and fathers ( n = 1075) in nine countries (China, Colombia, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, the Philippines, Sweden, Thailand, and the United States). Perceptions of greater neighborhood danger were associated with more child aggression in all nine countries according to mothers’ and fathers’ reports and in five of the nine countries according to children’s reports. Parental monitoring did not moderate the relation between perception of neighborhood danger and child aggression. The mediating role of harsh parenting was inconsistent across countries and reporters. Implications for further research are discussed, and include examination of more specific aspects of parental monitoring as well as more objective measures of neighborhood danger.

Suggested Citation

  • Ann T. Skinner & Dario Bacchini & Jennifer E. Lansford & Jennifer W. Godwin & Emma Sorbring & Sombat Tapanya & Liliana Maria Uribe Tirado & Arnaldo Zelli & Liane Peña Alampay & Suha M. Al-Hassan & Ann, 2014. "Neighborhood Danger, Parental Monitoring, Harsh Parenting, and Child Aggression in Nine Countries," Societies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 4(1), pages 1-23, January.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jsoctx:v:4:y:2014:i:1:p:45-67:d:32336

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Zhang, Saijun & Anderson, Steven G., 2010. "Low-income single mothers' community violence exposure and aggressive parenting practices," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 32(6), pages 889-895, June.
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    More about this item


    child aggression; community violence; harsh parenting; parental monitoring; neighborhood danger;

    JEL classification:

    • A13 - General Economics and Teaching - - General Economics - - - Relation of Economics to Social Values
    • A14 - General Economics and Teaching - - General Economics - - - Sociology of Economics
    • P - Economic Systems
    • P0 - Economic Systems - - General
    • P1 - Economic Systems - - Capitalist Systems
    • P2 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Systems and Transition Economies
    • P3 - Economic Systems - - Socialist Institutions and Their Transitions
    • P4 - Economic Systems - - Other Economic Systems
    • P5 - Economic Systems - - Comparative Economic Systems
    • Z1 - Other Special Topics - - Cultural Economics


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