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A Note on Realistic Dividends in Actuarial Surplus Models

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  • Benjamin Avanzi

    () (School of Risk and Actuarial Studies, UNSW Australia Business School, UNSW Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
    Département de Mathématiques et de Statistique, Université de Montréal, Montréal, QC H3T 1J4, Canada)

  • Vincent Tu

    () (School of Risk and Actuarial Studies, UNSW Australia Business School, UNSW Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia)

  • Bernard Wong

    () (School of Risk and Actuarial Studies, UNSW Australia Business School, UNSW Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia)

Abstract

Because of the profitable nature of risk businesses in the long term, de Finetti suggested that surplus models should allow for cash leakages, as otherwise the surplus would unrealistically grow (on average) to infinity. These leakages were interpreted as ‘dividends’. Subsequent literature on actuarial surplus models with dividend distribution has mainly focussed on dividend strategies that either maximise the expected present value of dividends until ruin or lead to a probability of ruin that is less than one (see Albrecher and Thonhauser, Avanzi for reviews). An increasing number of papers are directly interested in modelling dividend policies that are consistent with actual practice in financial markets. In this short note, we review the corporate finance literature with the specific aim of fleshing out properties that dividend strategies should ideally satisfy, if one wants to model behaviour that is consistent with practice.

Suggested Citation

  • Benjamin Avanzi & Vincent Tu & Bernard Wong, 2016. "A Note on Realistic Dividends in Actuarial Surplus Models," Risks, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 4(4), pages 1-9, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jrisks:v:4:y:2016:i:4:p:37-:d:80958
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Abel Cadenillas & Tahir Choulli & Michael Taksar & Lei Zhang, 2006. "Classical And Impulse Stochastic Control For The Optimization Of The Dividend And Risk Policies Of An Insurance Firm," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(1), pages 181-202.
    2. Eugene F. Fama & Kenneth R. French, 2001. "Disappearing Dividends: Changing Firm Characteristics Or Lower Propensity To Pay?," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 14(1), pages 67-79.
    3. Ikenberry, David & Lakonishok, Josef & Vermaelen, Theo, 1995. "Market underreaction to open market share repurchases," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 39(2-3), pages 181-208.
    4. Decamps, Marc & De Schepper, Ann & Goovaerts, Marc, 2009. "Spectral decomposition of optimal asset-liability management," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 710-724, March.
    5. Lin, X. Sheldon & Sendova, Kristina P., 2008. "The compound Poisson risk model with multiple thresholds," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(2), pages 617-627, April.
    6. Bagwell, Laurie Simon & Shoven, John B, 1989. "Cash Distributions to Shareholders," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 3(3), pages 129-140, Summer.
    7. Gustavo Grullon & Roni Michaely, 2002. "Dividends, Share Repurchases, and the Substitution Hypothesis," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 57(4), pages 1649-1684, August.
    8. Hubalek, Friedrich & Schachermayer, Walter, 2004. "Optimizing expected utility of dividend payments for a Brownian risk process and a peculiar nonlinear ODE," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(2), pages 193-225, April.
    9. Jean-Paul Décamps & Stéphane Villeneuve, 2014. "Rethinking Dynamic Capital Structure Models With Roll-Over Debt," Mathematical Finance, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 24(1), pages 66-96, January.
    10. Radner, Roy & Shepp, Larry, 1996. "Risk vs. profit potential: A model for corporate strategy," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 20(8), pages 1373-1393, August.
    11. Stéphane Loisel & Hans-U. Gerber, 2012. "Why ruin theory should be of interest for insurance practitioners and risk managers nowadays," Post-Print hal-00746231, HAL.
    12. Rafael La Porta & Florencio Lopez-de-Silanes & Andrei Shleifer & Robert W. Vishny, 2000. "Agency Problems and Dividend Policies around the World," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(1), pages 1-33, February.
    13. Brav, Alon & Graham, John R. & Harvey, Campbell R. & Michaely, Roni, 2005. "Payout policy in the 21st century," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 77(3), pages 483-527, September.
    14. Hong Zou & Chuanhou Yang & Mulong Wang & Minglai Zhu, 2009. "Dividend decisions in the property and liability insurance industry: mutual versus stock companies," Review of Quantitative Finance and Accounting, Springer, vol. 33(2), pages 113-139, August.
    15. Hayne E. Leland and Klaus Bjerre Toft., 1995. "Optimal Capital Structure, Endogenous Bankruptcy, and the Term Structure of Credit Spreads," Research Program in Finance Working Papers RPF-259, University of California at Berkeley.
    16. repec:hrv:faseco:30747163 is not listed on IDEAS
    17. Merton H. Miller & Franco Modigliani, 1961. "Dividend Policy, Growth, and the Valuation of Shares," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 34, pages 411-411.
    18. Jean‐Paul Décamps & Thomas Mariotti & Jean‐Charles Rochet & Stéphane Villeneuve, 2011. "Free Cash Flow, Issuance Costs, and Stock Prices," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 66(5), pages 1501-1544, October.
    19. Gustavo Grullon & Roni Michaely & Bhaskaran Swaminathan, 2002. "Are Dividend Changes a Sign of Firm Maturity?," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 75(3), pages 387-424, July.
    20. Formisano, Roger A., 1978. "Dividend decisions and the structure of the life insurance industry," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 6(4), pages 329-344, December.
    21. Franklin Allen & Antonio E. Bernardo & Ivo Welch, 2000. "A Theory of Dividends Based on Tax Clienteles," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 55(6), pages 2499-2536, December.
    22. Shefrin, Hersh M. & Statman, Meir, 1984. "Explaining investor preference for cash dividends," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 13(2), pages 253-282, June.
    23. Denis, David J. & Osobov, Igor, 2008. "Why do firms pay dividends? International evidence on the determinants of dividend policy," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(1), pages 62-82, July.
    24. Miller, Merton H & Rock, Kevin, 1985. " Dividend Policy under Asymmetric Information," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 40(4), pages 1031-1051, September.
    25. Leland, Hayne E & Toft, Klaus Bjerre, 1996. " Optimal Capital Structure, Endogenous Bankruptcy, and the Term Structure of Credit Spreads," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 51(3), pages 987-1019, July.
    26. Michaely, Roni & Thaler, Richard H & Womack, Kent L, 1995. " Price Reactions to Dividend Initiations and Omissions: Overreaction or Drift?," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 50(2), pages 573-608, June.
    27. Albrecher, Hansjörg & Cheung, Eric C.K. & Thonhauser, Stefan, 2011. "Randomized Observation Periods for the Compound Poisson Risk Model: Dividends," ASTIN Bulletin: The Journal of the International Actuarial Association, Cambridge University Press, vol. 41(02), pages 645-672, November.
    28. John, Kose & Williams, Joseph, 1985. " Dividends, Dilution, and Taxes: A Signalling Equilibrium," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 40(4), pages 1053-1070, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Avanzi, Benjamin & Pérez, José-Luis & Wong, Bernard & Yamazaki, Kazutoshi, 2017. "On optimal joint reflective and refractive dividend strategies in spectrally positive Lévy models," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 148-162.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    surplus models; dividends; de Finetti; corporate finance;

    JEL classification:

    • C - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods
    • G0 - Financial Economics - - General
    • G1 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets
    • G2 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services
    • G3 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance
    • M2 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Business Economics
    • M4 - Business Administration and Business Economics; Marketing; Accounting; Personnel Economics - - Accounting
    • K2 - Law and Economics - - Regulation and Business Law

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