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Forest Transition in Madagascar’s Highlands: Initial Evidence and Implications

Author

Listed:
  • William J. McConnell

    () (Center for Global Change and Earth Observations, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823, USA)

  • Andrés Viña

    () (Center for Systems Integration and Sustainability, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823, USA
    Department of Geography, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA)

  • Christian Kull

    () (Institut de Géographie et Durabilité, Université de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne, Switzerland)

  • Clayton Batko

    () (Department of Anthropology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48823, USA)

Abstract

Madagascar is renowned for the loss of the forested habitat of lemurs and other species endemic to the island. Less well known is that in the highlands, a region often described as an environmental “basket-case” of fire-degraded, eroded grasslands, woody cover has been increasing for decades. Using information derived from publically available high- and medium-resolution satellites, this study characterizes tree cover dynamics in the highlands of Madagascar over the past two decades. Our results reveal heterogeneous patterns of increased tree cover on smallholder farms and village lands, spurred by a mix of endogenous and exogenous forces. The new trees play important roles in rural livelihoods, providing renewable supplies of firewood, charcoal, timber and other products and services, as well as defensible claims to land tenure in the context of a decline in the use of hillside commons for grazing. This study documents this nascent forest transition through Land Change Science techniques, and provides a prologue to political ecological analysis by setting these changes in their social and environmental context and interrogating the costs and benefits of the shift in rural livelihood strategies.

Suggested Citation

  • William J. McConnell & Andrés Viña & Christian Kull & Clayton Batko, 2015. "Forest Transition in Madagascar’s Highlands: Initial Evidence and Implications," Land, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 4(4), pages 1-27, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jlands:v:4:y:2015:i:4:p:1155-1181:d:59423
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    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Rocheleau, Dianne & Edmunds, David, 1997. "Women, men and trees: Gender, power and property in forest and agrarian landscapes," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 25(8), pages 1351-1371, August.
    2. Barrett, Christopher B., 1997. "Food marketing liberalization and trader entry: Evidence from Madagascar," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 25(5), pages 763-777, May.
    3. Minten, Bart & Randrianarison, Lalaina & Swinnen, Johan F.M., 2009. "Global Retail Chains and Poor Farmers: Evidence from Madagascar," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(11), pages 1728-1741, November.
    4. Minten, Bart & Barrett, Christopher B., 2008. "Agricultural Technology, Productivity, and Poverty in Madagascar," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 36(5), pages 797-822, May.
    5. Andrew D. Foster & Mark R. Rosenzweig, 2003. "Economic Growth and the Rise of Forests," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 118(2), pages 601-637.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Jacqueline M. Vadjunec & Claudia Radel & B. L. Turner II, 2016. "Introduction: The Continued Importance of Smallholders Today," Land, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 5(4), pages 1-12, October.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    afforestation; forest transition; Landsat; rural livelihoods;

    JEL classification:

    • Q15 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Land Ownership and Tenure; Land Reform; Land Use; Irrigation; Agriculture and Environment
    • Q2 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation
    • Q24 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation - - - Land
    • Q28 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation - - - Government Policy
    • Q5 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics
    • R14 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Land Use Patterns
    • R52 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Regional Government Analysis - - - Land Use and Other Regulations

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