IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/gam/jlands/v4y2015i4p1060-1089d59109.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Changing Livelihoods and Landscapes in the Rural Eastern Cape, South Africa: Past Influences and Future Trajectories

Author

Listed:
  • Sheona Shackleton

    () (Department of Environmental Science, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140, South Africa)

  • Marty Luckert

    () (Department of Resource Economics and Environmental Sociology, University of Alberta, 515 General Services Building, Edmonton, AB T6G 2H1, Canada)

Abstract

This paper seeks to understand the drivers and pathways of local livelihood change and the prospects for transformation towards a more sustainable future. Data are used from several studies, and a participatory social learning process, which formed part of a larger project in two sites in the Eastern Cape, South Africa. Secondary information from a wealth of related work is used to place our results within the historic context and more general trends in the country. Findings indicate that livelihoods in the rural Eastern Cape are on new trajectories. Agricultural production has declined markedly, at a time when the need for diversification of livelihoods and food security seems to be at a premium. This decline is driven by a suite of drivers that interact with, and are influenced by, other changes and stresses affecting local livelihoods. We distil out the factors, ranging from historical processes to national policies and local dynamics, that hamper peoples’ motivation and ability to respond to locally identified vulnerabilities and, which, when taken together, could drive households into a trap. We end by considering the transformations required to help local people evade traps and progress towards a more promising future in a context of increasing uncertainty.

Suggested Citation

  • Sheona Shackleton & Marty Luckert, 2015. "Changing Livelihoods and Landscapes in the Rural Eastern Cape, South Africa: Past Influences and Future Trajectories," Land, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 4(4), pages 1-30, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jlands:v:4:y:2015:i:4:p:1060-1089:d:59109
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.mdpi.com/2073-445X/4/4/1060/pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: http://www.mdpi.com/2073-445X/4/4/1060/
    Download Restriction: no

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Campbell, Catherine & MacPhail, Catherine, 2002. "Peer education, gender and the development of critical consciousness: participatory HIV prevention by South African youth," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 55(2), pages 331-345, July.
    2. Maura Andrew & Roddy Fox, 2004. "'Undercultivation' and intensification in the Transkei: a case study of historical changes in the use of arable land in Nompa, Shixini," Development Southern Africa, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 21(4), pages 687-706.
    3. Loevinsohn, Michael & Gillespie, Stuart, 2003. "HIV/AIDS, food security and rural livelihoods," FCND briefs 157, International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI).
    4. Michelle Adato & Michael Carter & Julian May, 2006. "Exploring poverty traps and social exclusion in South Africa using qualitative and quantitative data," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(2), pages 226-247.
    5. Haroon Bhorat & Ravi Kanbur, 2005. "Poverty and Well-being in Post-Apartheid South Africa: An Overview of Data, Outcomes and Policy," Working Papers 05101, University of Cape Town, Development Policy Research Unit.
    6. Perret, Sylvain R., 2002. "Livelihood Strategies In Rural Transkei (Eastern Cape Province): How Does Wool Production Fit In?," Working Papers 18046, University of Pretoria, Department of Agricultural Economics, Extension and Rural Development.
    7. Ozler, Berk, 2007. "Not Separate, Not Equal: Poverty and Inequality in Post-apartheid South Africa," Economic Development and Cultural Change, University of Chicago Press, vol. 55(3), pages 487-529, April.
    8. Baiphethi, Mompati N. & Jacobs, Peter T., 2009. "The contribution of subsistence farming to food security in South Africa," Agrekon, Agricultural Economics Association of South Africa (AEASA), vol. 48(4), December.
    9. Aliber, Michael & Hart, Tim G.B., 2009. "Should subsistence agriculture be supported as a strategy to address rural food insecurity?," Agrekon, Agricultural Economics Association of South Africa (AEASA), vol. 48(4), December.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Jacqueline M. Vadjunec & Claudia Radel & B. L. Turner II, 2016. "Introduction: The Continued Importance of Smallholders Today," Land, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 5(4), pages 1-12, October.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    livelihoods; farming; traps; transformation; South Africa; landscapes; poverty; change; multiple stressors; Eastern Cape;

    JEL classification:

    • Q15 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Land Ownership and Tenure; Land Reform; Land Use; Irrigation; Agriculture and Environment
    • Q2 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation
    • Q24 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation - - - Land
    • Q28 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Renewable Resources and Conservation - - - Government Policy
    • Q5 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Environmental Economics
    • R14 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - General Regional Economics - - - Land Use Patterns
    • R52 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Regional Government Analysis - - - Land Use and Other Regulations

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gam:jlands:v:4:y:2015:i:4:p:1060-1089:d:59109. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (XML Conversion Team). General contact details of provider: http://www.mdpi.com/ .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.