IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/gam/jeners/v14y2021i12p3518-d574308.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Investigating Carbon Emissions from Electricity Generation and GDP Nexus Using Maximum Entropy Bootstrap: Evidence from Oil-Producing Countries in the Middle East

Author

Listed:
  • Zeinab Zanjani

    (Faculty of Economics, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-464 Porto, Portugal)

  • Pedro Macedo

    (Center for Research and Development in Mathematics and Applications, Department of Mathematics, Campus Universitário de Santiago, University of Aveiro, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal)

  • Isabel Soares

    (Research Center for Economics and Finance, Faculty of Economics, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-464 Porto, Portugal)

Abstract

The maximum entropy bootstrap for time series is applied in this study to investigate the nexus between carbon emissions from electricity generation and the gross domestic product, using a bivariate framework for eight Middle Eastern countries between 1995 and 2017. The sample under study includes oil-producing countries such as Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and United Arab Emirates. As the electricity generation in these economies relies mainly on oil and gas, finding out the existence and direction of the relationship between the two considered variables has remarkable implications for policymakers and governments in these countries to achieve both higher economic growth and environmental protection. As expected, this nexus is validated for all countries in the sample but not in all models, time periods, and lags. Therefore, policymakers can set appropriate electricity conservation policies based on these varied empirical findings to boost economic growth with minimum environmental degradation.

Suggested Citation

  • Zeinab Zanjani & Pedro Macedo & Isabel Soares, 2021. "Investigating Carbon Emissions from Electricity Generation and GDP Nexus Using Maximum Entropy Bootstrap: Evidence from Oil-Producing Countries in the Middle East," Energies, MDPI, vol. 14(12), pages 1-22, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jeners:v:14:y:2021:i:12:p:3518-:d:574308
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/14/12/3518/pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/14/12/3518/
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Davidson, Russell & MacKinnon, James G, 1981. "Several Tests for Model Specification in the Presence of Alternative Hypotheses," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(3), pages 781-793, May.
    2. Ms. Giorgia Albertin & Mr. Younes Zouhar & Miss Randa Sab & Mr. Carlo A Sdralevich, 2014. "Subsidy Reform in the Middle East and North Africa: Recent Progress and Challenges Ahead," IMF Departmental Papers / Policy Papers 2014/008, International Monetary Fund.
    3. Yalta, A. Talha, 2011. "Analyzing energy consumption and GDP nexus using maximum entropy bootstrap: The case of Turkey," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 453-460, May.
    4. Mohamed Sayed Abou Elseoud & Fuad M. Kreishan, 2020. "Energy-GDP Nexus for Oil-Exporting Country: The Case of Bahrain," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 10(6), pages 80-86.
    5. Wu, Cheng-Feng & Wang, Chien-Ming & Chang, Tsangyao & Yuan, Chien-Chung, 2019. "The nexus of electricity and economic growth in major economies: The United States-India-China triangle," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 188(C).
    6. Sahbi Farhani & Jaleleddine Ben Rejeb, 2012. "Energy Consumption, Economic Growth and CO2 Emissions: Evidence from Panel Data for MENA Region," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 2(2), pages 71-81.
    7. Coers, Robin & Sanders, Mark, 2013. "The energy–GDP nexus; addressing an old question with new methods," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 708-715.
    8. Alam, Mohammad Jahangir & Ahmed, Mumtaz & Begum, Ismat Ara, 2017. "Nexus between non-renewable energy demand and economic growth in Bangladesh: Application of Maximum Entropy Bootstrap approach," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 399-406.
    9. Morteza Aien & Omid Mahdavi, 2020. "On the Way of Policy Making to Reduce the Reliance of Fossil Fuels: Case Study of Iran," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 12(24), pages 1-28, December.
    10. Vinod, Hrishikesh D. & Lopez-de-Lacalle, Javier, 2009. "Maximum Entropy Bootstrap for Time Series: The meboot R Package," Journal of Statistical Software, Foundation for Open Access Statistics, vol. 29(i05).
    11. Tiwari, Aviral Kumar & Eapen, Leena Mary & Nair, Sthanu R, 2021. "Electricity consumption and economic growth at the state and sectoral level in India: Evidence using heterogeneous panel data methods," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 94(C).
    12. Du, Limin & Wei, Chu & Cai, Shenghua, 2012. "Economic development and carbon dioxide emissions in China: Provincial panel data analysis," China Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 23(2), pages 371-384.
    13. Soytas, Ugur & Sari, Ramazan, 2003. "Energy consumption and GDP: causality relationship in G-7 countries and emerging markets," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 33-37, January.
    14. Ozcan, Burcu, 2013. "The nexus between carbon emissions, energy consumption and economic growth in Middle East countries: A panel data analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 1138-1147.
    15. Pfeiffer, Birte & Mulder, Peter, 2013. "Explaining the diffusion of renewable energy technology in developing countries," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 285-296.
    16. Fuad M.M Kreishan & Mohamed Sayed Abou Elseoud & Mohammad Selim, 2018. "Oil Revenue and State Budget Dynamic Relationship: Evidence from Bahrain," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 8(6), pages 174-179.
    17. Lotfalipour, Mohammad Reza & Falahi, Mohammad Ali & Ashena, Malihe, 2010. "Economic growth, CO2 emissions, and fossil fuels consumption in Iran," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 35(12), pages 5115-5120.
    18. Tahir Mahmood & Shafqut Ullah & Muhammad Mumtaz, 2021. "Dependence of Energy Intensity on Economic Growth: Panel Data Analysis of South Asian Economies," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 11(2), pages 234-239.
    19. George E. Halkos & Eleni-Christina Gkampoura, 2021. "Examining the Linkages among Carbon Dioxide Emissions, Electricity Production and Economic Growth in Different Income Levels," Energies, MDPI, vol. 14(6), pages 1-24, March.
    20. Vinod, Hrishikesh D., 2006. "Maximum entropy ensembles for time series inference in economics," Journal of Asian Economics, Elsevier, vol. 17(6), pages 955-978, December.
    21. Chaido Dritsaki & Melina Dritsaki, 2014. "Causal Relationship between Energy Consumption, Economic Growth and CO2 Emissions: A Dynamic Panel Data Approach," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 4(2), pages 125-136.
    22. Chakamera, Chengete & Alagidede, Paul, 2018. "Electricity crisis and the effect of CO2 emissions on infrastructure-growth nexus in Sub Saharan Africa," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 945-958.
    23. Kais, Saidi & Sami, Hammami, 2016. "An econometric study of the impact of economic growth and energy use on carbon emissions: Panel data evidence from fifty eight countries," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 1101-1110.
    24. Koutroumanidis, Theodoros & Ioannou, Konstantinos & Arabatzis, Garyfallos, 2009. "Predicting fuelwood prices in Greece with the use of ARIMA models, artificial neural networks and a hybrid ARIMA-ANN model," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(9), pages 3627-3634, September.
    25. Rahman, Mohammad Mafizur, 2017. "Do population density, economic growth, energy use and exports adversely affect environmental quality in Asian populous countries?," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 77(C), pages 506-514.
    26. Altinay, Galip & Karagol, Erdal, 2004. "Structural break, unit root, and the causality between energy consumption and GDP in Turkey," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 26(6), pages 985-994, November.
    27. repec:eco:journ2:2017-04-35 is not listed on IDEAS
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Tiba, Sofien & Omri, Anis, 2017. "Literature survey on the relationships between energy, environment and economic growth," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 1129-1146.
    2. Sofien, Tiba & Omri, Anis, 2016. "Literature survey on the relationships between energy variables, environment and economic growth," MPRA Paper 82555, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 14 Sep 2016.
    3. Habib Ur Rahman & Umer Zaman & Jarosław Górecki, 2021. "The Role of Energy Consumption, Economic Growth and Globalization in Environmental Degradation: Empirical Evidence from the BRICS Region," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(4), pages 1-16, February.
    4. Salahuddin, Mohammad & Gow, Jeff, 2014. "Economic growth, energy consumption and CO2 emissions in Gulf Cooperation Council countries," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 73(C), pages 44-58.
    5. Meira, Erick & Cyrino Oliveira, Fernando Luiz & de Menezes, Lilian M., 2022. "Forecasting natural gas consumption using Bagging and modified regularization techniques," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 106(C).
    6. Mousavi, Babak & Lopez, Neil Stephen A. & Biona, Jose Bienvenido Manuel & Chiu, Anthony S.F. & Blesl, Markus, 2017. "Driving forces of Iran's CO2 emissions from energy consumption: An LMDI decomposition approach," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 206(C), pages 804-814.
    7. Fallahi, Firouz & Karimi, Mohammad & Voia, Marcel-Cristian, 2016. "Persistence in world energy consumption: Evidence from subsampling confidence intervals," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 175-183.
    8. Aqil Khan & Mumtaz Ahmed & Salma Bibi, 2019. "Financial development and economic growth nexus for Pakistan: a revisit using maximum entropy bootstrap approach," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 57(4), pages 1157-1169, October.
    9. Kais Saidi & Mohammad Mafizur Rahman, 2021. "The link between environmental quality, economic growth, and energy use: new evidence from five OPEC countries," Environment Systems and Decisions, Springer, vol. 41(1), pages 3-20, March.
    10. Firouz Fallahi & Mohammad Karimi & Marcel-Cristian Voia, 2014. "Are Shocks to Energy Consumption Persistent? Evidence from Subsampling Confidence Intervals," Carleton Economic Papers 14-02, Carleton University, Department of Economics.
    11. Rohin Anhal, 2013. "Causality between GDP, Energy and Coal Consumption in India, 1970-2011: A Non-parametric Bootstrap Approach," International Journal of Energy Economics and Policy, Econjournals, vol. 3(4), pages 434-446.
    12. Zhihui Lv & Amanda M. Y. Chu & Michael McAleer & Wing-Keung Wong, 2019. "Modelling Economic Growth, Carbon Emissions, and Fossil Fuel Consumption in China: Cointegration and Multivariate Causality," IJERPH, MDPI, vol. 16(21), pages 1-35, October.
    13. Alam, Mohammad Jahangir & Ahmed, Mumtaz & Begum, Ismat Ara, 2017. "Nexus between non-renewable energy demand and economic growth in Bangladesh: Application of Maximum Entropy Bootstrap approach," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 399-406.
    14. Yalta, A. Yasemin, 2013. "Revisiting the FDI-led growth Hypothesis: The case of China," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 31(C), pages 335-343.
    15. A. Talha Yalta, 2016. "Bootstrap Inference of Level Relationships in the Presence of Serially Correlated Errors: A Large Scale Simulation Study and an Application in Energy Demand," Computational Economics, Springer;Society for Computational Economics, vol. 48(2), pages 339-366, August.
    16. Sun, Huaping & Samuel, Clottey Attuquaye & Kofi Amissah, Joshua Clifford & Taghizadeh-Hesary, Farhad & Mensah, Isaac Adjei, 2020. "Non-linear nexus between CO2 emissions and economic growth: A comparison of OECD and B&R countries," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 212(C).
    17. Muhammad Bilal Khan & Hummera Saleem & Malik Shahzad Shabbir & Xie Huobao, 2022. "The effects of globalization, energy consumption and economic growth on carbon dioxide emissions in South Asian countries," Energy & Environment, , vol. 33(1), pages 107-134, February.
    18. Chen, Wenhui & Lei, Yalin, 2018. "The impacts of renewable energy and technological innovation on environment-energy-growth nexus: New evidence from a panel quantile regression," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 123(C), pages 1-14.
    19. A. Talha Yalta, 2013. "The Dynamics of Road Energy Demand and Illegal Fuel Activity in Turkey: A Rolling Window Analysis," Working Papers 1304, TOBB University of Economics and Technology, Department of Economics, revised Jul 2013.
    20. Fallahi, Firouz, 2011. "Causal relationship between energy consumption (EC) and GDP: A Markov-switching (MS) causality," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(7), pages 4165-4170.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gam:jeners:v:14:y:2021:i:12:p:3518-:d:574308. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: https://www.mdpi.com .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: MDPI Indexing Manager (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://www.mdpi.com .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.