IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/gam/jecomi/v9y2021i3p117-d617112.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

The Role of Tourism in Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Saudi Arabia

Author

Listed:
  • Sana Naseem

    (Department of Accounting and Finance, College of Business Administration (COBA), Al Yamamah University, 7010 King Fahd Road, Al Qirawan, Riyadh 13541, Saudi Arabia)

Abstract

Tourism is vital to the success of many economies worldwide and has been a widely researched area for many years. Unfortunately, an insufficient number of studies have been conducted on this subject in the context of Saudi Arabia. Therefore, this research investigates the role of tourism in promoting economic growth in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia by using annual time series data from 2003 to 2019. The study uses basic statistics, correlation coefficients, the unit root test, the Johansen co-integration test, the co-integration regression test and the Granger causality test to check the relationship between tourism and economic growth. The results show that economic growth has a long-run relationship with tourism receipts, tourism expenditures and the number of tourist arrivals; the number of tourist arrivals has a strong relationship with economic growth, compared to other parameters. The empirical results validate the concept that tourism promotes economic growth in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia.

Suggested Citation

  • Sana Naseem, 2021. "The Role of Tourism in Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Saudi Arabia," Economies, MDPI, vol. 9(3), pages 1-12, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jecomi:v:9:y:2021:i:3:p:117-:d:617112
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2227-7099/9/3/117/pdf
    Download Restriction: no

    File URL: https://www.mdpi.com/2227-7099/9/3/117/
    Download Restriction: no
    ---><---

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Park, Joon Y, 1992. "Canonical Cointegrating Regressions," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 60(1), pages 119-143, January.
    2. Abdulkarim K. Alhowaish, 2016. "Is Tourism Development a Sustainable Economic Growth Strategy in the Long Run? Evidence from GCC Countries," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 8(7), pages 1-10, June.
    3. MacKinnon, James G & Haug, Alfred A & Michelis, Leo, 1999. "Numerical Distribution Functions of Likelihood Ratio Tests for Cointegration," Journal of Applied Econometrics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 14(5), pages 563-577, Sept.-Oct.
    4. Ramesh Durbarry, 2004. "Tourism and Economic Growth: The Case of Mauritius," Tourism Economics, , vol. 10(4), pages 389-401, December.
    5. Lee, Jung Wan & Brahmasrene, Tantatape, 2013. "Investigating the influence of tourism on economic growth and carbon emissions: Evidence from panel analysis of the European Union," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 69-76.
    6. Dickey, David A & Fuller, Wayne A, 1981. "Likelihood Ratio Statistics for Autoregressive Time Series with a Unit Root," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(4), pages 1057-1072, June.
    7. Jacint Balaguer & Manuel Cantavella-Jorda, 2002. "Tourism as a long-run economic growth factor: the Spanish case," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 34(7), pages 877-884.
    8. E. M. Ekanayake & Aubrey E. Long, 2012. "Tourism Development And Economic Growth In Developing Countries," The International Journal of Business and Finance Research, The Institute for Business and Finance Research, vol. 6(1), pages 51-63.
    9. Samina Khalil & Mehmood Khan Kakar & Waliullah, 2007. "Role of Tourism in Economic Growth: Empirical Evidence from Pakistan Economy," The Pakistan Development Review, Pakistan Institute of Development Economics, vol. 46(4), pages 985-995.
    10. Edgar J Sanchez Carrera & W. Adrian Risso & Juan Gabriel Brida, 2008. "Tourism's Impact on Long-Run Mexican Economic Growth," Economics Bulletin, AccessEcon, vol. 3(21), pages 1-8.
    11. Lee, Chien-Chiang & Chien, Mei-Se, 2008. "Structural breaks, tourism development, and economic growth: Evidence from Taiwan," Mathematics and Computers in Simulation (MATCOM), Elsevier, vol. 77(4), pages 358-368.
    12. Stock, James H & Watson, Mark W, 1993. "A Simple Estimator of Cointegrating Vectors in Higher Order Integrated Systems," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 61(4), pages 783-820, July.
    13. Taizeng Ren & Muhlis Can & Sudharshan Reddy Paramati & Jianchun Fang & Wanshan Wu, 2019. "The Impact of Tourism Quality on Economic Development and Environment: Evidence from Mediterranean Countries," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 11(8), pages 1-17, April.
    14. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:3:y:2008:i:21:p:1-8 is not listed on IDEAS
    15. Chou, Ming Che, 2013. "Does tourism development promote economic growth in transition countries? A panel data analysis," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 33(C), pages 226-232.
    16. Sara Proença & Elias Soukiazis, 2008. "Tourism as an Economic Growth Factor: A Case Study for Southern European Countries," Tourism Economics, , vol. 14(4), pages 791-806, December.
    17. A., Rjumohan, 2019. "Integration between Economic Growth and Financial Development in India: An Analysis," MPRA Paper 101856, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    18. Falk, Martin, 2010. "A dynamic panel data analysis of snow depth and winter tourism," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 31(6), pages 912-924.
    19. Nikolaos Dritsakis, 2004. "Tourism as a Long-Run Economic Growth Factor: An Empirical Investigation for Greece Using Causality Analysis," Tourism Economics, , vol. 10(3), pages 305-316, September.
    20. Muhammad Ahad, 2016. "Does Tourism-led Growth Hypothesis exist in Pakistan? A Freshlook from Combine Cointegration and Causality Approach with Structural Breaks," International Journal of Economics and Empirical Research (IJEER), The Economics and Social Development Organization (TESDO), vol. 4(2), pages 94-111, February.
    21. Yang Songling & Muhammad Ishtiaq & Bui Thi Thanh, 2019. "Tourism Industry and Economic Growth Nexus in Beijing, China," Economies, MDPI, vol. 7(1), pages 1-15, March.
    22. Asif Khan & Sughra Bibi & Ardito Lorenzo & Jiaying Lyu & Zaheer Udden Babar, 2020. "Tourism and Development in Developing Economies: A Policy Implication Perspective," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 12(4), pages 1-19, February.
    23. Mosab I. Tabash, 2017. "The Role of Tourism Sector in Economic Growth: An Empirical Evidence From Palestine," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 7(2), pages 103-108.
    24. Lokman Gunduz & Abdulnasser Hatemi-J, 2005. "Is the tourism-led growth hypothesis valid for Turkey?," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(8), pages 499-504.
    25. Nuno Carlos Leit o, 2015. "Portuguese Tourism Demand: A Dynamic Panel Data Analysis," International Journal of Economics and Financial Issues, Econjournals, vol. 5(3), pages 673-677.
    26. Uzma Khan, 2020. "Does Tourism Boost Economic Growth: Evidence from Italy," International Journal of Economics & Business Administration (IJEBA), International Journal of Economics & Business Administration (IJEBA), vol. 0(4), pages 214-222.
    27. Turgut Bayramoğlu & Yılmaz Onur Arı, 2015. "The relationship between tourism and economic growth in greece economy: a time series analysis," Computational Methods in Social Sciences (CMSS), "Nicolae Titulescu" University of Bucharest, Faculty of Economic Sciences, vol. 3(1), pages 89-93, June.
    28. Nuno Carlos Leitão & Muhammad Shahbaz, 2016. "Economic Growth, Tourism Arrivals and Climate Change," Bulletin of Energy Economics (BEE), The Economics and Social Development Organization (TESDO), vol. 4(1), pages 35-43, March.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Ketut Eko Ari Saputro & Hasim & Lina Karlinasari & Irfan Syauqi Beik, 2023. "Evaluation of Sustainable Rural Tourism Development with an Integrated Approach Using MDS and ANP Methods: Case Study in Ciamis, West Java, Indonesia," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 15(3), pages 1-18, January.
    2. Zargham Ullah Khan & Muhammad Bilal Ahmad & Khadija Saeed, 2022. "The Impact of COVID-19 on Tourism and Hospitality Industry: A Qualitative Investigation in Pakistan," Journal of Policy Research (JPR), Research Foundation for Humanity (RFH), vol. 8(4), pages 439-446, December.
    3. Sarwar, Suleman, 2022. "Impact of energy intensity, green economy and blue economy to achieve sustainable economic growth in GCC countries: Does Saudi Vision 2030 matters to GCC countries," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 191(C), pages 30-46.
    4. Batara Surya & Hernita Hernita & Agus Salim & Seri Suriani & Iwan Perwira & Yulia Yulia & Muhlis Ruslan & Kafrawi Yunus, 2022. "Travel-Business Stagnation and SME Business Turbulence in the Tourism Sector in the Era of the COVID-19 Pandemic," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 14(4), pages 1-37, February.
    5. Károly Németh & Mohammed Rashad Moufti, 2023. "Lava Flow Hazard and Its Implication in Geopark Development for the Active Harrat Khaybar Intracontinental Monogenetic Volcanic Field, Saudi Arabia," Land, MDPI, vol. 12(3), pages 1-29, March.
    6. Ghazala Aziz & Rida Waheed & Suleman Sarwar & Mohd Saeed Khan, 2022. "The Significance of Governance Indicators to Achieve Carbon Neutrality: A New Insight of Life Expectancy," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 15(1), pages 1-20, December.

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Abdulkarim K. Alhowaish, 2016. "Is Tourism Development a Sustainable Economic Growth Strategy in the Long Run? Evidence from GCC Countries," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 8(7), pages 1-10, June.
    2. Yong Su & Jacob Cherian & Muhammad Safdar Sial & Alina Badulescu & Phung Anh Thu & Daniel Badulescu & Sarminah Samad, 2021. "Does Tourism Affect Economic Growth of China? A Panel Granger Causality Approach," Sustainability, MDPI, vol. 13(3), pages 1-12, January.
    3. Muhammad Shahbaz & Ramzi Benkraiem & Anthony Miloudi & Aviral Kumar Tiwari, 2019. "Tourism-induced financial development in Malaysia: New evidence from the tourism development index," Tourism Economics, , vol. 25(5), pages 757-778, August.
    4. Yang Songling & Muhammad Ishtiaq & Bui Thi Thanh, 2019. "Tourism Industry and Economic Growth Nexus in Beijing, China," Economies, MDPI, vol. 7(1), pages 1-15, March.
    5. Osinubi, Tolulope Temilola & Osinubi , Olufemi Bankole, 2020. "Inclusive Growth in Tourism-led Growth Hypothesis: Evidence from Nigeria," African Journal of Economic Review, African Journal of Economic Review, vol. 8(2), July.
    6. Zdravko Sergo, 2019. "Inter-Generational Employment Spillovers From Tourism Across The Eu," Economic Thought and Practice, Department of Economics and Business, University of Dubrovnik, vol. 28(1), pages 97-125, june.
    7. Tugcu, Can Tansel, 2014. "Tourism and economic growth nexus revisited: A panel causality analysis for the case of the Mediterranean Region," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 207-212.
    8. Salah Eddine Sari Hassoun & Khayereddine Salim Adda & Asma Hadjira Sebbane, 2021. "Examining the connection among national tourism expenditure and economic growth in Algeria," Future Business Journal, Springer, vol. 7(1), pages 1-9, December.
    9. Hasan Murat Ertugrul & Fatih Mangir, 2015. "The tourism-led growth hypothesis: empirical evidence from Turkey," Current Issues in Tourism, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 18(7), pages 633-646, July.
    10. İbrahim Hüseyni, & Ömer Doru, & Ahmet Tunç, 2017. "The Effects Of Tourism Revenues On Economic Growth In The Context Of Neo-Classical Growth Model: In The Case Of Turkey," EcoForum, "Stefan cel Mare" University of Suceava, Romania, Faculty of Economics and Public Administration - Economy, Business Administration and Tourism Department., vol. 6(1), pages 1-2, January.
    11. Ceyhun Can OZCAN & Murat ASLAN & Saban NAZLIOGLU, 2017. "Economic freedom, economic growth and international tourism for post-communist (transition) countries: A panel causality analysis," Theoretical and Applied Economics, Asociatia Generala a Economistilor din Romania / Editura Economica, vol. 0(2(611), S), pages 75-98, Summer.
    12. Jing Gao & Wen Xu & Lei Zhang, 2021. "Tourism, economic growth, and tourism-induced EKC hypothesis: evidence from the Mediterranean region," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 60(3), pages 1507-1529, March.
    13. Ronald Ravinesh Kumar & Peter Josef Stauvermann & Nikeel Kumar & Syed Jawad Hussain Shahzad, 2019. "Exploring the effect of ICT and tourism on economic growth: a study of Israel," Economic Change and Restructuring, Springer, vol. 52(3), pages 221-254, August.
    14. Holzner, Mario, 2011. "Tourism and economic development: The beach disease?," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 32(4), pages 922-933.
    15. Muhammad Tariq Majeed & Maria Mazhar, 2021. "Managing economic growth through tourism: Does volatility of tourism matter?," DECISION: Official Journal of the Indian Institute of Management Calcutta, Springer;Indian Institute of Management Calcutta, vol. 48(1), pages 49-69, March.
    16. Tang, Chor Foon & Tan, Eu Chye, 2015. "Does tourism effectively stimulate Malaysia's economic growth?," Tourism Management, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 158-163.
    17. Uktam Umurzakov & Shakhnoza Tosheva & Raufhon Salahodjaev, 2023. "Tourism and Sustainable Economic Development: Evidence from Belt and Road Countries," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 14(1), pages 503-516, March.
    18. Muhammad Ahad, 2016. "Does Tourism-led Growth Hypothesis exist in Pakistan? A Freshlook from Combine Cointegration and Causality Approach with Structural Breaks," International Journal of Economics and Empirical Research (IJEER), The Economics and Social Development Organization (TESDO), vol. 4(2), pages 94-111, February.
    19. Tang, Chor Foon, 2011. "Tourism, real output and real effective exchange rate in Malaysia: a view from rolling sub-samples," MPRA Paper 29379, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    20. Omer Yalcinkaya & Muhammet Dastan & Kerem Karabulut, 2018. "The Effects of International Tourism Receipts on Economic Growth- Evidence from the First 20 Highest Income Earning Countries from Tourism in the World (1996-2016)," Montenegrin Journal of Economics, Economic Laboratory for Transition Research (ELIT), vol. 14(3), pages 55-71.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:gam:jecomi:v:9:y:2021:i:3:p:117-:d:617112. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: MDPI Indexing Manager (email available below). General contact details of provider: https://www.mdpi.com .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service. RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.