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Soil Erosion from Agriculture and Mining: A Threat to Tropical Stream Ecosystems

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  • Karl M. Wantzen

    () (River Culture (Fleuve et Patrimoine), Interdisciplinary Research Centre for Cities, Territories, Environment and Society (CNRS UMR CITERES), Université François Rabelais, Parc Grandmont, 37200 Tours, France)

  • Jan H. Mol

    () (Department of Biology, Center for Agricultural Research in Suriname (CELOS), Anton de Kom University of Suriname, Leysweg, Paramaribo, Suriname)

Abstract

In tropical countries soil erosion is often increased due to high erodibility of geologically old and weathered soils; intensive rainfall; inappropriate soil management; removal of forest vegetation cover; and mining activities. Stream ecosystems draining agricultural or mining areas are often severely impacted by the high loads of eroded material entering the stream channel; increasing turbidity; covering instream habitat and affecting the riparian zone; and thereby modifying habitat and food web structures. The biodiversity is severely threatened by these negative effects as the aquatic and riparian fauna and flora are not adapted to cope with excessive rates of erosion and sedimentation. Eroded material may also be polluted by pesticides or heavy metals that have an aggravating effect on functions and ecosystem services. Loss of superficial material and deepening of erosion gullies impoverish the nutrient and carbon contents of the soils; and lower the water tables; causing a “lose-lose” situation for agricultural productivity and environmental integrity. Several examples show how to interrupt this vicious cycle by integrated catchment management and by combining “green” and “hard” engineering for habitat restoration. In this review; we summarize current findings on this issue from tropical countries with a focus on case studies from Suriname and Brazil.

Suggested Citation

  • Karl M. Wantzen & Jan H. Mol, 2013. "Soil Erosion from Agriculture and Mining: A Threat to Tropical Stream Ecosystems," Agriculture, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 3(4), pages 1-24, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:gam:jagris:v:3:y:2013:i:4:p:660-683:d:29250
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. World Bank & Food and Agriculture Organization & International Fund for Agricultural Development, 2009. "Gender in Agriculture Sourcebook
      [Agricultura y desarrollo rural : manual sobre género en agricultura]
      ," World Bank Publications, The World Bank, number 6603, July.
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    1. repec:gam:jsusta:v:9:y:2017:i:4:p:546-:d:94905 is not listed on IDEAS

    More about this item

    Keywords

    agricultural catchments; headwater stream; siltation; suspended sediment; turbidity; environmental impact; biodiversity;

    JEL classification:

    • Q1 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture
    • Q10 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - General
    • Q11 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Aggregate Supply and Demand Analysis; Prices
    • Q12 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Micro Analysis of Farm Firms, Farm Households, and Farm Input Markets
    • Q13 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agricultural Markets and Marketing; Cooperatives; Agribusiness
    • Q14 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agricultural Finance
    • Q15 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Land Ownership and Tenure; Land Reform; Land Use; Irrigation; Agriculture and Environment
    • Q16 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - R&D; Agricultural Technology; Biofuels; Agricultural Extension Services
    • Q17 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agriculture in International Trade
    • Q18 - Agricultural and Natural Resource Economics; Environmental and Ecological Economics - - Agriculture - - - Agricultural Policy; Food Policy

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