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Measuring the effects of the September 11 attack on New York City

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  • Jason Bram
  • James A. Orr
  • Carol Rapaport

Abstract

The attack on the World Trade Center had an enormous financial, as well as emotional, impact on New York City. This article measures the short-term economic effects on the city's labor force and capital stock through June 2002, the end of the recovery process at the World Trade Center site. Using a lifetime-earnings loss concept, the authors estimate that the nearly 3,000 workers killed in the attack lost $7.8 billion in prospective income. Moreover, the employment impact in the key affected sectors - such as finance, air transportation, hotels, and restaurants - translated into an estimated earnings shortfall of $3.6 billion to $6.4 billion, while the cost of repairing and replacing the damaged physical capital stock and infrastructure totaled an estimated $21.6 billion. Accordingly, the authors determine that the total attack-related cost to New York City through June 2002 was between $33 billion and $36 billion. The article also examines the attack's effects on the city's most economically vulnerable residents and analyzes survey findings on the incidence of post-traumatic stress disorder and alcohol and drug use after September 11.

Suggested Citation

  • Jason Bram & James A. Orr & Carol Rapaport, 2002. "Measuring the effects of the September 11 attack on New York City," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Nov, pages 5-20.
  • Handle: RePEc:fip:fednep:y:2002:i:nov:p:5-20:n:v.8no.2
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Friedrich Schneider & Tilman Brück & Daniel Meierrieks, 2010. "The Economics of Terrorism and Counter-Terrorism: A Survey (Part I)," Discussion Papers of DIW Berlin 1049, DIW Berlin, German Institute for Economic Research.
    2. James Harrigan & Philippe Martin, 2002. "Terrorism and the resilience of cities," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Nov, pages 97-116.
    3. Neeraj Kaushal & Robert Kaestner & Cordelia Reimers, 2007. "Labor Market Effects of September 11th on Arab and Muslim Residents of the United States," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 42(2).
    4. J. David Cummins & Michael Suher & George Zanjani, 1975. "Federal Financial Exposure to Natural Catastrophe Risk," NBER Chapters,in: Measuring and Managing Federal Financial Risk, pages 61-92 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. Edgardo Barandiarán, 2003. "El Prestamista de Última Instancia en la Nueva Industria Bancaria," Latin American Journal of Economics-formerly Cuadernos de Economía, Instituto de Economía. Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile., vol. 40(120), pages 337-358.
    6. Bram Jason & Haughwout Andrew & Orr James, 2009. "Further Observations on the Economic Effects on New York City of the Attack on the World Trade Center," Peace Economics, Peace Science, and Public Policy, De Gruyter, vol. 15(2), pages 1-24, July.
    7. Christopher J. Neely, 2004. "The Federal Reserve responds to crises: September 11th was not the first," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, issue Mar, pages 27-42.
    8. Fuerst, Franz, 2006. "The Aftermath of the 9/11 Attack in the New York City Office Market: A Review of Key Figures and Developments," MPRA Paper 13316, University Library of Munich, Germany, revised 09 Feb 2009.
    9. Wenzel, Lars & Wolf, André, 2013. "Protection against major catastrophes: An economic perspective," HWWI Research Papers 137, Hamburg Institute of International Economics (HWWI).
    10. Jason Bram & James A. Orr, 2006. "Taking the pulse of the New York City economy," Current Issues in Economics and Finance, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, vol. 12(May).
    11. Ryan Brown, 2014. "The Intergenerational Impact of Terror: Does the 9/11 Tragedy Reverberate into the Outcomes of the Next Generation?," HiCN Working Papers 165, Households in Conflict Network.
    12. Climent Quintana-Domeque & Pedro Rodenas-Serrano, 2014. "Terrorism and Human Capital at Birth: Bomb Casualties and Birth Outcomes in Spain," Working Papers 2014-020, Human Capital and Economic Opportunity Working Group.
    13. Gerlach, Jeffrey R. & Yook, Youngsuk, 2016. "Political conflict and foreign portfolio investment: Evidence from North Korean attacks," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 178-196.
    14. Jason Bram & Andrew F. Haughwout & James A. Orr, 2002. "Has September 11 affected New York City's growth potential?," Economic Policy Review, Federal Reserve Bank of New York, issue Nov, pages 81-96.

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