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Environment, Land, and Rural Out-migration in the Southern Ecuadorian Andes


  • Gray, Clark L.


Summary Out-migration, environmental degradation, and changes in land distribution are all key processes of rural transformation in the developing world, but few quantitative studies have investigated their interactions in migrant origin areas. This study uses survey data from the southern Ecuadorian Andes and an event history model to investigate the effects of land ownership and environmental conditions on out-migration to local, internal, and international destinations. The results indicate that the effects of land ownership and other factors differ strongly across migration streams. Also, negative environmental conditions and landlessness do not consistently increase out-migration as commonly assumed in the literature.

Suggested Citation

  • Gray, Clark L., 2009. "Environment, Land, and Rural Out-migration in the Southern Ecuadorian Andes," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 37(2), pages 457-468, February.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:wdevel:v:37:y:2009:i:2:p:457-468

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Cattaneo, Cristina & Peri, Giovanni, 2016. "The migration response to increasing temperatures," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 122(C), pages 127-146.
    2. Simone Bertoli & Francesca Marchetta, 2014. "Migration, Remittances and Poverty in Ecuador," Journal of Development Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 50(8), pages 1067-1089, August.
    3. Cano Liliana, 2015. "Income Mobility in Ecuador: New Evidence from Individual Income Tax Returns," WIDER Working Paper Series 040, World Institute for Development Economic Research (UNU-WIDER).
    4. Lina Eklund & Jonathan Seaquist, 2015. "Meteorological, agricultural and socioeconomic drought in the Duhok Governorate, Iraqi Kurdistan," Natural Hazards: Journal of the International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, Springer;International Society for the Prevention and Mitigation of Natural Hazards, vol. 76(1), pages 421-441, March.
    5. Vicente Ruiz, 2017. "Do climatic events influence internal migration? Evidence from Mexico," Working Papers 2017.19, FAERE - French Association of Environmental and Resource Economists.
    6. Mbaye, Linguère Mously & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2015. "Environmental Disasters and Migration," IZA Discussion Papers 9349, Institute for the Study of Labor (IZA).
    7. Mbaye, Linguere Mously & Zimmermann, Klaus F., 2016. "Natural Disasters and Human Mobility," International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics, now publishers, vol. 10(1), pages 37-56, November.
    8. Alem, Yonas & Maurel, Mathilde & Millock, Katrin, 2016. "Migration as an Adaptation Strategy to Weather Variability: An Instrumental Variables Probit Analysis," Working Papers in Economics 665, University of Gothenburg, Department of Economics.
    9. Castro-Nunez, Augusto & Mertz, Ole & Quintero, Marcela, 2016. "Propensity of farmers to conserve forest within REDD+ projects in areas affected by armed-conflict," Forest Policy and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 22-30.
    10. Gray, Clark & Mueller, Valerie, 2012. "Drought and Population Mobility in Rural Ethiopia," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 134-145.
    11. Luca Marchiori & Jean Francois Maystadt & Ingmar Schumacher, 2013. "Is environmentally," Working Papers 2013-17, Department of Research, Ipag Business School.
    12. repec:eee:eneeco:v:64:y:2017:i:c:p:31-44 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. López-Feldman, Alejandro & Chávez, Estefanía, 2017. "Remittances and Natural Resource Extraction: Evidence from Mexico," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 132(C), pages 69-79.


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