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Behavioral adjustments and equity effects of congestion pricing: Analysis of morning commutes during the Stockholm Trial

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  • Karlström, Anders
  • Franklin, Joel P.

Abstract

This paper assesses the horizontal and vertical equity effects of the Stockholm Trial with Congestion Pricing for morning commuters, in terms of both travel behavioral adjustments and welfare effects, as a result of the toll's direct effects and the behavioral adjustments. We consider specifically two behavioral adjustments: mode choice and departure time choice. Initial car drivers crossing the toll cordon had a 15 percentage-points higher rate of switching to public transit as compared with those not crossing the cordon. We also find some evidence of peak spreading, in particular toward a later departure time, as a result of the charging scheme, but most people choose a departure time within 15Â min both before and during the trial. In the welfare analysis, we found no clear pattern of increasing burden by either increasing income or decreasing income, and the increase in the Gini Coefficient was insignificant. We also found no significant difference in either the mode-switching behavior or the average welfare effect for women versus for men.

Suggested Citation

  • Karlström, Anders & Franklin, Joel P., 2009. "Behavioral adjustments and equity effects of congestion pricing: Analysis of morning commutes during the Stockholm Trial," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 43(3), pages 283-296, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:transa:v:43:y:2009:i:3:p:283-296
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Eliasson, Jonas, 2009. "A cost-benefit analysis of the Stockholm congestion charging system," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 43(4), pages 468-480, May.
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    3. Eliasson, Jonas & Mattsson, Lars-Göran, 2006. "Equity effects of congestion pricing: Quantitative methodology and a case study for Stockholm," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 40(7), pages 602-620, August.
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    Cited by:

    1. Daina, Nicolò & Sivakumar, Aruna & Polak, John W., 2017. "Modelling electric vehicles use: a survey on the methods," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 68(P1), pages 447-460.
    2. Eliasson, Jonas & Börjesson, Maria & van Amelsfort, Dirk & Brundell-Freij, Karin & Engelson, Leonid, 2013. "Accuracy of congestion pricing forecasts," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 34-46.
    3. Condeço-Melhorado, Ana & Gutiérrez, Javier & García-Palomares, Juan Carlos, 2011. "Spatial impacts of road pricing: Accessibility, regional spillovers and territorial cohesion," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 45(3), pages 185-203, March.
    4. Foreman, Kate, 2016. "Crossing the bridge: The effects of time-varying tolls on curbing congestion," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 92(C), pages 76-94.
    5. Börjesson, Maria & Eliasson, Jonas & Hugosson, Muriel & Brundell-Freij, Karin, 2012. "The Stockholm congestion charges – five years on. Effects, acceptability and lessons learnt," Working papers in Transport Economics 2012:3, CTS - Centre for Transport Studies Stockholm (KTH and VTI).
    6. Coria, Jessica & Bonilla, Jorge & Grundström, Maria & Pleijel, Håkan, 2015. "Air pollution dynamics and the need for temporally differentiated road pricing," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 75(C), pages 178-195.
    7. Peer, Stefanie & Knockaert, Jasper & Verhoef, Erik T., 2016. "Train commuters’ scheduling preferences: Evidence from a large-scale peak avoidance experiment," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 83(C), pages 314-333.
    8. Eliasson, Jonas, 2016. "Is congestion pricing fair? Consumer and citizen perspectives on equity effects," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 52(C), pages 1-15.
    9. Berri, Akli & Vincent Lyk-Jensen, Stéphanie & Mulalic, Ismir & Zachariadis, Theodoros, 2014. "Household transport consumption inequalities and redistributive effects of taxes: A repeated cross-sectional evaluation for France, Denmark and Cyprus," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 206-216.
    10. Souche, Stéphanie & Raux, Charles & Croissant, Yves, 2012. "On the perceived justice of urban road pricing: An empirical study in Lyon," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 46(7), pages 1124-1136.
    11. Wu, Di & Yin, Yafeng & Lawphongpanich, Siriphong & Yang, Hai, 2012. "Design of more equitable congestion pricing and tradable credit schemes for multimodal transportation networks," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 46(9), pages 1273-1287.
    12. Kristoffersson, Ida, 2013. "Impacts of time-varying cordon pricing: Validation and application of mesoscopic model for Stockholm," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 51-60.
    13. Bureau, Benjamin & Glachant, Matthieu, 2011. "Distributional effects of public transport policies in the Paris Region," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 18(5), pages 745-754, September.
    14. Li, Zheng & Hensher, David A., 2012. "Congestion charging and car use: A review of stated preference and opinion studies and market monitoring evidence," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 20(C), pages 47-61.
    15. Munford, Luke A., 2017. "The impact of congestion charging on social capital," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 97(C), pages 192-208.
    16. Berri, Akli & Vincent Lyk-Jensen, Stéphanie & Mulalic, Ismir & Zachariadis, Theodoros, 2014. "Household transport consumption inequalities and redistributive effects of taxes: A repeated cross-sectional evaluation for France, Denmark and Cyprus," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 206-216.
    17. Farokhi, Farhad & Johansson, Karl H., 2015. "A piecewise-constant congestion taxing policy for repeated routing games," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 78(C), pages 123-143.
    18. Pronello, Cristina & Rappazzo, Valentina, 2014. "Road pricing: How people perceive a hypothetical introduction. The case of Lyon," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 192-205.
    19. Jonas Westin, 2011. "Labor Market Effects of Road Pricing in a Population with Continuously Distributed Value of Time," ERSA conference papers ersa10p1458, European Regional Science Association.
    20. Börjesson, Maria & Eliasson, Jonas & Hugosson, Muriel B. & Brundell-Freij, Karin, 2012. "The Stockholm congestion charges—5 years on. Effects, acceptability and lessons learnt," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 20(C), pages 1-12.
    21. Karen Lucas & Bert Wee & Kees Maat, 2016. "A method to evaluate equitable accessibility: combining ethical theories and accessibility-based approaches," Transportation, Springer, vol. 43(3), pages 473-490, May.
    22. Linn, Joshua & Wang, Zhongmin & Xie, Lunyu, 2016. "Who will be affected by a congestion pricing scheme in Beijing?," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 47(C), pages 34-40.

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