IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/tefoso/v80y2013i3p471-484.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Where is synergy indicated in the Norwegian innovation system? Triple-Helix relations among technology, organization, and geography

Author

Listed:
  • Strand, Øivind
  • Leydesdorff, Loet

Abstract

Using information theory and data for all (0.5million) Norwegian firms, the national and regional innovation systems are decomposed into three subdynamics: (i) economic wealth generation, (ii) technological novelty production, and (iii) government interventions and administrative control. The mutual information in three dimensions can then be used as an indicator of potential synergy, that is, reduction of uncertainty. We aggregate the data at the NUTS3 level for 19 counties, the NUTS2 level for seven regions, and the single NUTS1 level for the nation. Measured as in-between group reduction of uncertainty, 11.7% of the synergy was found at the regional level, whereas only another 2.7% was added by aggregation at the national level. Using this Triple-Helix indicator, the counties along the west coast are indicated as more knowledge-based than the metropolitan area of Oslo or the geographical environment of the Technical University in Trondheim. Foreign direct investment seems to have larger knowledge spill-overs in Norway (oil, gas, offshore, chemistry, and marine) than the institutional knowledge infrastructure in established universities. The northern part of the country, which receives large government subsidies, shows a deviant pattern.

Suggested Citation

  • Strand, Øivind & Leydesdorff, Loet, 2013. "Where is synergy indicated in the Norwegian innovation system? Triple-Helix relations among technology, organization, and geography," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 80(3), pages 471-484.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:tefoso:v:80:y:2013:i:3:p:471-484
    DOI: 10.1016/j.techfore.2012.08.010
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0040162512001928
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Gerben Van Der Panne & Wilfred Dolfsma, 2003. "The odd role of proximity in knowledge relations: high-tech in the Netherlands," Tijdschrift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, Royal Dutch Geographical Society KNAG, vol. 94(4), pages 453-462, September.
    2. Leydesdorff, Loet & Fritsch, Michael, 2006. "Measuring the knowledge base of regional innovation systems in Germany in terms of a Triple Helix dynamics," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(10), pages 1538-1553, December.
    3. William McGill, 1954. "Multivariate information transmission," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 19(2), pages 97-116, June.
    4. Arne Isaksen & Heidi Wiig Aslesen, 2001. "Oslo: In What Way an Innovative City?," European Planning Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 9(7), pages 871-887, October.
    5. Asheim, Bjorn T. & Coenen, Lars, 2005. "Knowledge bases and regional innovation systems: Comparing Nordic clusters," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(8), pages 1173-1190, October.
    6. Leydesdorff, Loet & Meyer, Martin, 2006. "Triple Helix indicators of knowledge-based innovation systems: Introduction to the special issue," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(10), pages 1441-1449, December.
    7. Arne Isaksen & Bjørn T. Asheim, "undated". "Location, agglomeration and innovation: Towards regional innovation systems in Norway?," STEP Report series 199613, The STEP Group, Studies in technology, innovation and economic policy.
    8. Leydesdorff, Loet & Dolfsma, Wilfred & Van der Panne, Gerben, 2006. "Measuring the knowledge base of an economy in terms of triple-helix relations among 'technology, organization, and territory'," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 181-199, March.
    9. Nooteboom, Bart, 1999. "Innovation and inter-firm linkages: new implications for policy," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 28(8), pages 793-805, November.
    10. R. D. Shelton & Loet Leydesdorff, 2012. "Publish or patent: Bibliometric evidence for empirical trade-offs in national funding strategies," Journal of the Association for Information Science & Technology, Association for Information Science & Technology, vol. 63(3), pages 498-511, March.
    11. David Doloreux & Steve Dionne, 2008. "Is regional innovation system development possible in peripheral regions? Some evidence from the case of La Pocatière, Canada," Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 20(3), pages 259-283, May.
    12. Etzkowitz, Henry & Leydesdorff, Loet, 2000. "The dynamics of innovation: from National Systems and "Mode 2" to a Triple Helix of university-industry-government relations," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 109-123, February.
    13. Balazs Lengyel & Loet Leydesdorff, 2011. "Regional Innovation Systems in Hungary: The Failing Synergy at the National Level," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 45(5), pages 677-693.
    14. James Simmie, 2003. "Innovation and Urban Regions as National and International Nodes for the Transfer and Sharing of Knowledge," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 37(6-7), pages 607-620.
    15. Narula, Rajneesh, 2002. "Innovation systems and 'inertia' in R&D location: Norwegian firms and the role of systemic lock-in," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(5), pages 795-816, July.
    16. Ron Boschma & Simona Iammarino, 2009. "Related Variety, Trade Linkages, and Regional Growth in Italy," Economic Geography, Clark University, vol. 85(3), pages 289-311, July.
    17. Benner, Mats & Sandstrom, Ulf, 2000. "Institutionalizing the triple helix: research funding and norms in the academic system," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 291-301, February.
    18. W. Garner & William McGill, 1956. "The relation between information and variance analyses," Psychometrika, Springer;The Psychometric Society, vol. 21(3), pages 219-228, September.
    19. Arne Isaksen, 2009. "Innovation Dynamics of Global Competitive Regional Clusters: The Case of the Norwegian Centres of Expertise," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 43(9), pages 1155-1166.
    20. Mei Hsiu-Ching Ho, 2009. "How Regional Innovation Systems Play a Relative Competitive Role Within Knowledge Networks," European Planning Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 17(12), pages 1881-1905, December.
    21. Jan Lambooy, 2004. "The transmission of knowledge, emerging networks, and the role of universities: An evolutionary approach," European Planning Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(5), pages 643-657, July.
    22. Vernon Henderson, J., 2007. "Understanding knowledge spillovers," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 497-508, July.
    23. Sverre Herstad & Øyvind Pålshaugen & Bernd Ebersberger, 2011. "Industrial Innovation Collaboration in a Capital Region Context," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 2(4), pages 507-532, December.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Citations

    Citations are extracted by the CitEc Project, subscribe to its RSS feed for this item.
    as


    Cited by:

    1. Lengyel, Balázs & Leydesdorff, Loet, 2015. "The Effects of FDI on Innovation Systems in Hungarian Regions: Where is the Synergy Generated?," MPRA Paper 73945, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Coccia M., 2014. "Temperate climate - Innovative outputs nexus," MERIT Working Papers 088, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
    3. repec:spr:qualqt:v:51:y:2017:i:3:d:10.1007_s11135-016-0344-z is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Luís Farinha & João Ferreira & Borges Gouveia, 2016. "Networks of Innovation and Competitiveness: A Triple Helix Case Study," Journal of the Knowledge Economy, Springer;Portland International Center for Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET), vol. 7(1), pages 259-275, March.
    5. Ivanova, Inga A. & Leydesdorff, Loet, 2014. "Rotational symmetry and the transformation of innovation systems in a Triple Helix of university–industry–government relations," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 86(C), pages 143-156.
    6. Jiao, Hao & Zhou, Jianghua & Gao, Taishan & Liu, Xielin, 2016. "The more interactions the better? The moderating effect of the interaction between local producers and users of knowledge on the relationship between R&D investment and regional innovation systems," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 110(C), pages 13-20.
    7. Zhao, S.L. & Cacciolatti, L. & Lee, S.H. & Song, W., 2015. "Regional collaborations and indigenous innovation capabilities in China: A multivariate method for the analysis of regional innovation systems," Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Elsevier, vol. 94(C), pages 202-220.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Triple Helix; Synergy; R&D funding; Norway;

    Statistics

    Access and download statistics

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:tefoso:v:80:y:2013:i:3:p:471-484. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu). General contact details of provider: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/00401625 .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.