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Measuring the Knowledge Base of Regional Innovation Systems in Germany in terms of a Triple Helix Dynamics

  • Leydesdorff, Loet
  • Fritsch, Michael

While a market economy seeks equilibrium, a knowledge-based economy may upset this tendency towards stabilization by adding the feedback of globalization. The interaction among the three subdynamics of economic exchange, technological innovation, and institutional control can be captured with a generalized Triple Helix model. We propose to use the mutual information as an indicator of integration among the three subdynamics at the systems level. This probabilistic entropy can be positive or negative. On the basis of data at the district level in Germany the conclusions of a previous study about the Netherlands are tested: medium-tech manufacturing is the main driver of a knowledge-based configuration in a regional economy, while knowledge-intensive services tend to uncouple the economy from the regional configuration. At the level of regions (NUTS-2) the knowledge-based economy is no longer structured by the previous East-West divide of the country, while this divide has remained the main structure at the level of the states (NUTS-1) which constitute the Federal Republic.

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Paper provided by TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration in its series Freiberg Working Papers with number 2005,10.

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Date of creation: 2005
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Handle: RePEc:zbw:tufwps:200510
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  1. Michael Fritsch, 2004. "Cooperation and the efficiency of regional R&D activities," Cambridge Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 28(6), pages 829-846, November.
  2. William McGill, 1954. "Multivariate information transmission," Psychometrika, Springer, vol. 19(2), pages 97-116, June.
  3. Fritsch, Michael & Stephan, Andreas, 2005. "Regionalization of innovation policy--Introduction to the special issue," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 34(8), pages 1123-1127, October.
  4. Etzkowitz, Henry & Webster, Andrew & Gebhardt, Christiane & Terra, Branca Regina Cantisano, 2000. "The future of the university and the university of the future: evolution of ivory tower to entrepreneurial paradigm," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 313-330, February.
  5. Etzkowitz, Henry & Leydesdorff, Loet, 2000. "The dynamics of innovation: from National Systems and "Mode 2" to a Triple Helix of university-industry-government relations," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 29(2), pages 109-123, February.
  6. Leydesdorff, Loet & Dolfsma, Wilfred & Van der Panne, Gerben, 2006. "Measuring the knowledge base of an economy in terms of triple-helix relations among 'technology, organization, and territory'," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 181-199, March.
  7. Rolf Sternberg & Christine Tamasy, 1999. "Munich as Germany's No. 1 High Technology Region: Empirical Evidence, Theoretical Explanations and the Role of Small Firm/Large Firm Relationships," Regional Studies, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(4), pages 367-377.
  8. Abernathy, William J. & Clark, Kim B., 1985. "Innovation: Mapping the winds of creative destruction," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 14(1), pages 3-22, February.
  9. Dominique Foray, 2006. "The Economics of Knowledge," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262562235, June.
  10. Fritsch, Michael & Slavtchev, Viktor, 2006. "Measuring the efficiency of regional innovation systems: an empirical assessment," Freiberg Working Papers 2006,08, TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Faculty of Economics and Business Administration.
  11. Pavitt, Keith, 1984. "Sectoral patterns of technical change: Towards a taxonomy and a theory," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 13(6), pages 343-373, December.
  12. Masahiko Aoki, 2001. "Toward a Comparative Institutional Analysis," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262011875, June.
  13. Philip Cooke & Loet Leydesdorff, 2006. "Regional Development in the Knowledge-Based Economy: The Construction of Advantage," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 31(1), pages 5-15, 01.
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