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The mutual information of university-industry-government relations: An indicator of the Triple Helix dynamics


  • Loet Leydesdorff

    () (Amsterdam School of Communications Research (ASCoR))


University-industry-government relations provide a networked infrastructure for knowledge-based innovation systems. This infrastructure organizes the dynamic fluxes locally and the knowledge base remains emergent given these conditions. Whereas the relations between the institutions can be measured as variables, the interacting fluxes generate a probabilistic entropy. The mutual information among the three institutional dimensions provides us with an indicator of this entropy. When this indicator is negative, self-organization can be expected. The self-organizing dynamic may temporarily be stabilized in the overlay of communications among the carrying agencies. The various dynamics of Triple Helix relations at the global and national levels, in different databases, and in different regions of the world, are distinguished by applying this indicator to scientometric and webometric data.

Suggested Citation

  • Loet Leydesdorff, 2003. "The mutual information of university-industry-government relations: An indicator of the Triple Helix dynamics," Scientometrics, Springer;Akadémiai Kiadó, vol. 58(2), pages 445-467, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:spr:scient:v:58:y:2003:i:2:d:10.1023_a:1026253130577
    DOI: 10.1023/A:1026253130577

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. David, Paul A, 1985. "Clio and the Economics of QWERTY," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 75(2), pages 332-337, May.
    2. Marta Riba Vilanova & Loet Leydesdorff, 2001. "Why Catalonia cannot be considered as a regional innovation system," Scientometrics, Springer;Akadémiai Kiadó, vol. 50(2), pages 215-240, February.
    3. Loet Leydesdorff & Henry Etzkowitz, 1998. "The Triple Helix as a model for innovation studies," Science and Public Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 25(3), pages 195-203, June.
    4. Ove Granstrand, 1999. "The Economics and Management of Intellectual Property," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 1651.
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