IDEAS home Printed from https://ideas.repec.org/a/eee/socmed/v60y2005i6p1251-1266.html
   My bibliography  Save this article

Inequity and inequality in the use of health care in England: an empirical investigation

Author

Listed:
  • Morris, Stephen
  • Sutton, Matthew
  • Gravelle, Hugh

Abstract

Achieving equity in healthcare, in the form of equal use for equal need, is an objective of many healthcare systems. The evaluation of equity requires value judgements as well as analysis of data. Previous studies are limited in the range of health and supply variables considered but show a pro-poor distribution of general practitioner consultations and inpatient services and a pro-rich distribution of outpatient visits. We investigate inequality and inequity in the use of general practitioner consultations, outpatient visits, day cases and inpatient stays in England with a unique linked data set that combines rich information on the health of individuals and their socio-economic circumstances with information on local supply factors. The data are for the period 1998-2000, just prior to the introduction of a set of National Health Service (NHS) reforms with potential equity implications. We find inequalities in utilisation with respect to income, ethnicity, employment status and education. Low-income individuals and ethnic minorities have lower use of secondary care despite having higher use of primary care. Ward level supply factors affect utilisation and are important for investigating health care inequality. Our results show some evidence of inequity prior to the reforms and provide a baseline against which the effects of the new NHS can be assessed.

Suggested Citation

  • Morris, Stephen & Sutton, Matthew & Gravelle, Hugh, 2005. "Inequity and inequality in the use of health care in England: an empirical investigation," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 60(6), pages 1251-1266, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:socmed:v:60:y:2005:i:6:p:1251-1266
    as

    Download full text from publisher

    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0277-9536(04)00356-9
    Download Restriction: Full text for ScienceDirect subscribers only
    ---><---

    As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to search for a different version of it.

    References listed on IDEAS

    as
    1. Adamson, Joy & Ben-Shlomo, Yoav & Chaturvedi, Nish & Donovan, Jenny, 2003. "Ethnicity, socio-economic position and gender--do they affect reported health--care seeking behaviour?," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 57(5), pages 895-904, September.
    2. Sutton, Matthew & Carr-Hill, Roy & Gravelle, Hugh & Rice, Nigel, 1999. "Do measures of self-reported morbidity bias the estimation of the determinants of health care utilisation?," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 49(7), pages 867-878, October.
    3. van Doorslaer, Eddy & Wagstaff, Adam & van der Burg, Hattem & Christiansen, Terkel & De Graeve, Diana & Duchesne, Inge & Gerdtham, Ulf-G & Gerfin, Michael & Geurts, Jose & Gross, Lorna, 2000. "Equity in the delivery of health care in Europe and the US," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 19(5), pages 553-583, September.
    4. Matthew Sutton, 2002. "Vertical and horizontal aspects of socio‐economic inequity in general practitioner contacts in Scotland," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(6), pages 537-549, September.
    5. Smaje, Chris & Le Grand, Julian, 1997. "Ethnicity, equity and the use of health services in the British NHS," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 45(3), pages 485-496, August.
    6. Goddard, Maria & Smith, Peter, 2001. "Equity of access to health care services: : Theory and evidence from the UK," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 53(9), pages 1149-1162, November.
    7. Adam Wagstaff & Eddy van Doorslaer, 2000. "Measuring and Testing for Inequity in the Delivery of Health Care," Journal of Human Resources, University of Wisconsin Press, vol. 35(4), pages 716-733.
    8. Mooney, Gavin & Hall, Jane & Donaldson, Cam & Gerard, Karen, 1991. "Utilisation as a measure of equity: weighing heat?," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 10(4), pages 475-480.
    9. Ignacio Abasolo & Rob Manning & Andrew Jones, 2001. "Equity in utilization of and access to public-sector GPs in Spain," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 33(3), pages 349-364.
    10. Daryl Pregibon, 1980. "Goodness of Link Tests for Generalized Linear Models," Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series C, Royal Statistical Society, vol. 29(1), pages 15-24, March.
    11. McClements, L. D., 1977. "Equivalence scales for children," Journal of Public Economics, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 191-210, October.
    Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)

    Most related items

    These are the items that most often cite the same works as this one and are cited by the same works as this one.
    1. Fleurbaey, Marc & Schokkaert, Erik, 2009. "Unfair inequalities in health and health care," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 73-90, January.
    2. Laura Vallejo-Torres & Stephen Morris, 2011. "Factors associated with the use of primary care services: the role of practice nurses," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 12(4), pages 373-381, August.
    3. Eric French & Elaine Kelly & Richard Cookson & Carol Propper & Miqdad Asaria & Rosalind Raine, 2016. "Socio‐Economic Inequalities in Health Care in England," Fiscal Studies, Institute for Fiscal Studies, vol. 37, pages 371-403, September.
    4. Van de Poel, Ellen & Van Doorslaer, Eddy & O’Donnell, Owen, 2012. "Measurement of inequity in health care with heterogeneous response of use to need," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 31(4), pages 676-689.
    5. Hernández-Quevedo, Cristina & Jiménez-Rubio, Dolores, 2009. "A comparison of the health status and health care utilization patterns between foreigners and the national population in Spain: New evidence from the Spanish National Health Survey," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 69(3), pages 370-378, August.
    6. Tavares, Lara Patrício & Zantomio, Francesca, 2017. "Inequity in healthcare use among older people after 2008: The case of southern European countries," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 121(10), pages 1063-1071.
    7. Laudicella, Mauro & Cookson, Richard & Jones, Andrew M. & Rice, Nigel, 2009. "Health care deprivation profiles in the measurement of inequality and inequity: An application to GP fundholding in the English NHS," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(6), pages 1048-1061, December.
    8. Bago d'Uva, Teresa & Jones, Andrew M. & van Doorslaer, Eddy, 2009. "Measurement of horizontal inequity in health care utilisation using European panel data," Journal of Health Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(2), pages 280-289, March.
    9. Lu, Jui-fen R. & Leung, Gabriel M. & Kwon, Soonman & Tin, Keith Y.K. & Van Doorslaer, Eddy & O'Donnell, Owen, 2007. "Horizontal equity in health care utilization evidence from three high-income Asian economies," Social Science & Medicine, Elsevier, vol. 64(1), pages 199-212, January.
    10. Hudson, Eibhlin & Nolan, Anne, 2015. "Public healthcare eligibility and the utilisation of GP services by older people in Ireland," The Journal of the Economics of Ageing, Elsevier, vol. 6(C), pages 24-43.
    11. Sato, Azusa, 2012. "Do Inequalities in Health Care Utilization in Developing Countries Change When We Take into Account Traditional Medicines?," World Development, Elsevier, vol. 40(11), pages 2275-2289.
    12. Hugh Gravelle & Stephen Morris & Matt Sutton, 2012. "Economic Studies of Equity in the Consumption of Health Care," Chapters, in: Andrew M. Jones (ed.), The Elgar Companion to Health Economics, Second Edition, chapter 18, Edward Elgar Publishing.
    13. Rosa M. Urbanos-Garrido, "undated". "Measurement of Inequity in the Delivery of Public Health Care: Evidence from Spain (1997)," Working Papers 2001-15, FEDEA.
    14. Marianne Tenand & Pieter Bakx & Eddy van Doorslaer, 2020. "Equal long‐term care for equal needs with universal and comprehensive coverage? An assessment using Dutch administrative data," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 29(4), pages 435-451, April.
    15. Jongsay Yong & Ou Yang, 2021. "Does socioeconomic status affect hospital utilization and health outcomes of chronic disease patients?," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 22(2), pages 329-339, March.
    16. Richard Layte & Anne Nolan, 2015. "Income-related inequity in the use of GP services by children: a comparison of Ireland and Scotland," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 16(5), pages 489-506, June.
    17. Hugh Gravelle, 2003. "Measuring income related inequality in health: standardisation and the partial concentration index," Health Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 12(10), pages 803-819, October.
    18. Zhao, Guangchuan & Cao, Xinbang & Ma, Chao, 2020. "Accounting for horizontal inequity in the delivery of health care: A framework for measurement and decomposition," International Review of Economics & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 13-24.
    19. Mohammad Habibullah Pulok & Kees Gool & Mohammad Hajizadeh & Sara Allin & Jane Hall, 2020. "Measuring horizontal inequity in healthcare utilisation: a review of methodological developments and debates," The European Journal of Health Economics, Springer;Deutsche Gesellschaft für Gesundheitsökonomie (DGGÖ), vol. 21(2), pages 171-180, March.
    20. Kankaanranta, Terhi & Nummi, Tapio & Vainiomaki, Jari & Halila, Hannu & Hyppola, Harri & Isokoski, Mauri & Kujala, Santero & Kumpusalo, Esko & Mattila, Kari & Virjo, Irma & Vanska, Jukka & Rissanen, P, 2007. "The role of job satisfaction, job dissatisfaction and demographic factors on physicians' intentions to switch work sector from public to private," Health Policy, Elsevier, vol. 83(1), pages 50-64, September.

    Corrections

    All material on this site has been provided by the respective publishers and authors. You can help correct errors and omissions. When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:socmed:v:60:y:2005:i:6:p:1251-1266. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: . General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/315/description#description .

    If you have authored this item and are not yet registered with RePEc, we encourage you to do it here. This allows to link your profile to this item. It also allows you to accept potential citations to this item that we are uncertain about.

    If CitEc recognized a bibliographic reference but did not link an item in RePEc to it, you can help with this form .

    If you know of missing items citing this one, you can help us creating those links by adding the relevant references in the same way as above, for each refering item. If you are a registered author of this item, you may also want to check the "citations" tab in your RePEc Author Service profile, as there may be some citations waiting for confirmation.

    For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: Catherine Liu (email available below). General contact details of provider: http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/315/description#description .

    Please note that corrections may take a couple of weeks to filter through the various RePEc services.

    IDEAS is a RePEc service hosted by the Research Division of the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis . RePEc uses bibliographic data supplied by the respective publishers.