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Changes to university IPR regulations in Europe and the impact on academic patenting

  • Geuna, Aldo
  • Rossi, Federica

This article develops a general framework to describe the changes in university IPR regulations in Europe and their effects on the patenting activities of universities and on knowledge transfer processes. Understanding the effects of changes in IPR regulations on academic patenting is a complex issue, and parallels with the US case can be misleading. First, despite the general trend towards institutional ownership, university IPR regulations in Europe remain extremely differentiated and there is no one-to-one mapping to the US system. Second, it is difficult to disentangle the quantitative and qualitative effects of changes in IPR ownership regulations on academic patenting activities from the effects of concurrent transformations in the institutional, cultural and organizational landscape surrounding academic knowledge transfer. The article proposes a review and typological classification of national university IPR ownership systems on the basis of their development since 2000, and uses it to analyze the aggregate dynamics of academic patent ownership in several European countries. The analysis of patterns of ownership of academic patents shows that there has been a general increase in university patenting since 1990, with a significant slowdown (and even reduction in some countries) after early 2000s accompanied by a switch in academic patents ownership in favor of university ownership though preserving the European specificity of high company ownership of academic invented patents.

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File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048733311000898
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Article provided by Elsevier in its journal Research Policy.

Volume (Year): 40 (2011)
Issue (Month): 8 (October)
Pages: 1068-1076

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Handle: RePEc:eee:respol:v:40:y:2011:i:8:p:1068-1076
Contact details of provider: Web page: http://www.elsevier.com/locate/respol

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  1. Joaquín Azagra-Caro & Nicolas Carayol & Patrick Llerena, 2006. "Patent Production at a European Research University: Exploratory Evidence at the Laboratory Level," The Journal of Technology Transfer, Springer, vol. 31(2), pages 257-268, 03.
  2. Antonio Della Malva & Francesco Lissoni & Maria Patrick Llerena, 2010. "Institutional Change and Academic Patenting: French Universities and the Innovation Act of the 1999," KITeS Working Papers 029, KITeS, Centre for Knowledge, Internationalization and Technology Studies, Universita' Bocconi, Milano, Italy, revised Jan 2010.
  3. Donald S. Siegel & Reinhilde Veugelers & Mike Wright, 2007. "Technology transfer offices and commercialization of university intellectual property: performance and policy implications," Oxford Review of Economic Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 23(4), pages 640-660, Winter.
  4. Joaqu�n M Azagra-Caro, 2011. "Do public research organisations own most patents invented by their staff?," Science and Public Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 38(3), pages 237-250, April.
  5. Argyres, Nicholas S. & Liebeskind, Julia Porter, 1998. "Privatizing the intellectual commons: Universities and the commercialization of biotechnology," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 427-454, May.
  6. Gustavo Crespi & Aldo Geuna & Bart Verspagen, 2007. "University IPRs and Knowledge Transfer. Is the IPR ownership model more efficient?," SPRU Working Paper Series 154, SPRU - Science and Technology Policy Research, University of Sussex.
  7. Czarnitzki, Dirk & Hussinger, Katrin & Schneider, Cedric, 2008. "Commercializing Academic Research: The Qaulity of Faculty Patenting," Working Papers 05-2008, Copenhagen Business School, Department of Economics.
  8. Francesco Lissoni & Patrick Llerena & Maureen McKelvey & Bulat Sanditov, 2007. "Academic Patenting in Europe: New Evidence from the KEINS Database," KITeS Working Papers 202, KITeS, Centre for Knowledge, Internationalization and Technology Studies, Universita' Bocconi, Milano, Italy, revised Jun 2007.
  9. Sidonia von Ledebur & Guido Buenstorf & Martin Hummel, 2009. "University Patenting in Germany before and after 2002: What Role Did the Professors' Privilege Play?," Jena Economic Research Papers 2009-068, Friedrich-Schiller-University Jena, Max-Planck-Institute of Economics.
  10. Martin Meyer & Puay Tang, 2006. "Exploring the "Value" of Academic Patents: IP Management Practices in UK Universities and their Implications for Third-Stream Indicators," SPRU Working Paper Series 143, SPRU - Science and Technology Policy Research, University of Sussex.
  11. Geuna, Aldo & Nesta, Lionel J.J., 2006. "University patenting and its effects on academic research: The emerging European evidence," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(6), pages 790-807, July.
  12. Francesco Lissoni & Peter Lotz & Jens Schovsbo & Adele Treccani, 2009. "Academic patenting and the professor's privilege: evidence on Denmark from the KEINS database," Science and Public Policy, Oxford University Press, vol. 36(8), pages 595-607, October.
  13. Baldini, Nicola & Grimaldi, Rosa & Sobrero, Maurizio, 2006. "Institutional changes and the commercialization of academic knowledge: A study of Italian universities' patenting activities between 1965 and 2002," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 518-532, May.
  14. Stefano Breschi & Fabio Montobbio & Francesco Lissoni & Antonio Della Malva, 2007. "L'attività brevettuale dei docenti universitari: l'Italia in un confronto internazionale," ECONOMIA E POLITICA INDUSTRIALE, FrancoAngeli Editore, vol. 2007(2), pages 43-70.
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