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Park-and-ride: Good for the city, good for the region?


  • Karamychev, Vladimir
  • van Reeven, Peran


At the edge of cities, park-and-ride (PÂ +Â R) facilities pop up with the aim to intercept motorists from traveling into the city. However, these facilities also appear attractive to public transport users who start using their cars for getting to the PÂ +Â R location. This paper analyzes the overall impact of PÂ +Â R on total car traffic and social welfare by means of a discrete modal choice model. The results show that the distribution of individuals' preferences for car over public transport is the main determinant of this impact. PÂ +Â R has a larger traffic reducing effect if more individuals prefer their car. At the same time, the shift of traffic from city to periphery improves welfare. These effects get stronger when a PÂ +Â R facility provides a superior access to the mainline public transportation network.

Suggested Citation

  • Karamychev, Vladimir & van Reeven, Peran, 2011. "Park-and-ride: Good for the city, good for the region?," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 41(5), pages 455-464, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:regeco:v:41:y:2011:i:5:p:455-464

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Parkhurst, Graham, 1995. "Park and ride: Could it lead to an increase in car traffic?," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 2(1), pages 15-23, January.
    2. Stuart Meek & Stephen Ison & Marcus Enoch, 2008. "Role of Bus‐Based Park and Ride in the UK: A Temporal and Evaluative Review," Transport Reviews, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 28(6), pages 781-803, March.
    3. Parkhurst, G., 2000. "Influence of bus-based park and ride facilities on users' car traffic," Transport Policy, Elsevier, vol. 7(2), pages 159-172, April.
    4. Horner, Mark W. & Groves, Sara, 2007. "Network flow-based strategies for identifying rail park-and-ride facility locations," Socio-Economic Planning Sciences, Elsevier, vol. 41(3), pages 255-268, September.
    5. Wang, Judith Y. T. & Yang, Hai & Lindsey, Robin, 2004. "Locating and pricing park-and-ride facilities in a linear monocentric city with deterministic mode choice," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 38(8), pages 709-731, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Marc Dijk & Graham Parkhurst, 2014. "Understanding the mobility-transformative qualities of urban park and ride polices in the UK and the Netherlands," International Journal of Automotive Technology and Management, Inderscience Enterprises Ltd, vol. 14(3/4), pages 246-270.
    2. Christoph Schneider & Bianca Achilles & Hendrik Merbitz, 2014. "Urbanity and Urbanization: An Interdisciplinary Review Combining Cultural and Physical Approaches," Land, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 3(1), pages 1-26, January.
    3. Ossokina, Ioulia V. & Verweij, Gerard, 2015. "Urban traffic externalities: Quasi-experimental evidence from housing prices," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 1-13.


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