Park-and-ride: Good for the city, good for the region?
At the edge of cities, park-and-ride (PÂ +Â R) facilities pop up with the aim to intercept motorists from traveling into the city. However, these facilities also appear attractive to public transport users who start using their cars for getting to the PÂ +Â R location. This paper analyzes the overall impact of PÂ +Â R on total car traffic and social welfare by means of a discrete modal choice model. The results show that the distribution of individuals' preferences for car over public transport is the main determinant of this impact. PÂ +Â R has a larger traffic reducing effect if more individuals prefer their car. At the same time, the shift of traffic from city to periphery improves welfare. These effects get stronger when a PÂ +Â R facility provides a superior access to the mainline public transportation network.
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