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International monetary arrangements for the 21st century--Which way?


  • Hossain, Monzur


This paper examines some competing views on currency regime choice by applying the dynamic multi-state Markov (MSM) model to the regime transitions of 166 countries from 1980 to 1999. The findings suggest that the bipolar view is valid only in the long run and for a reason quite different from what the proponents had imagined, namely, economic development rather than crisis-driven exits. The estimated steady-state probabilities even predict that a unipolar fixed exchange rate system could emerge in the long run. Despite some divergence, both de jure and de facto regime data corroborate the key findings.

Suggested Citation

  • Hossain, Monzur, 2011. "International monetary arrangements for the 21st century--Which way?," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 25(2), pages 47-63, June.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jjieco:v:25:y:2011:i:2:p:47-63

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Hernandez, Leonardo & Montiel, Peter J., 2003. "Post-crisis exchange rate policy in five Asian countries: Filling in the "hollow middle"?," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 17(3), pages 336-369, September.
    2. Jeffrey A. Frankel, 2003. "Experience of and Lessons from Exchange Rate Regime in Emerging Economies," NBER Working Papers 10032, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
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    4. Obstfeld, Maurice, 1996. "Models of currency crises with self-fulfilling features," European Economic Review, Elsevier, vol. 40(3-5), pages 1037-1047, April.
    5. Carmen M. Reinhart & Kenneth S. Rogoff, 2004. "The Modern History of Exchange Rate Arrangements: A Reinterpretation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 119(1), pages 1-48.
    6. Masson, Paul R., 2001. "Exchange rate regime transitions," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 64(2), pages 571-586, April.
    7. Baxter, Marianne & Stockman, Alan C., 1989. "Business cycles and the exchange-rate regime : Some international evidence," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 23(3), pages 377-400, May.
    8. Jonathan David Ostry & Anne Marie Gulde & Atish R. Ghosh & Holger C. Wolf, 1995. "Does the Nominal Exchange Rate Regime Matter?," IMF Working Papers 95/121, International Monetary Fund.
    9. Jürgen von Hagen & Jizhong Zhou, 2005. "The choice of exchange rate regime: "An empirical analysis for transition economies" ," The Economics of Transition, The European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, vol. 13(4), pages 679-703, October.
    10. Reuven Glick & Ramon Moreno & Mark M. Spiegel, 2001. "Financial crises in emerging markets," FRBSF Economic Letter, Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco, issue mar.23.
    11. Hossain, Monzur, 2009. "Institutional development and the choice of exchange rate regime: A cross-country analysis," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 23(1), pages 56-70, March.
    12. Paul Masson & Francisco J. Ruge-Murcia, 2005. "Explaining the Transition between Exchange Rate Regimes," Scandinavian Journal of Economics, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 107(2), pages 261-278, June.
    13. Monzur Hossain, 2009. "Divergence from de jure exchange rate regime: a stochastic process of learning," Applied Economics Letters, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 16(5), pages 475-479.
    14. Helene Poirson Ward, 2001. "How Do Countries Choose their Exchange Rate Regime?," IMF Working Papers 01/46, International Monetary Fund.
    15. Paolo Mauro & Grace Juhn, 2002. "Long-Run Determinants of Exchange Rate Regimes; A Simple Sensitivity Analysis," IMF Working Papers 02/104, International Monetary Fund.
    16. Maurice Obstfeld & Kenneth Rogoff, 1995. "The Mirage of Fixed Exchange Rates," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 9(4), pages 73-96, Fall.
    17. Stanley Fischer, 2001. "Exchange Rate Regimes: Is the Bipolar View Correct?," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(2), pages 3-24, Spring.
    18. Atish R. Ghosh & Anne-Marie Gulde & Holger C. Wolf, 2003. "Exchange Rate Regimes: Choices and Consequences," MIT Press Books, The MIT Press, edition 1, volume 1, number 0262072408, July.
    19. Lawrence H. Summers, 2000. "International Financial Crises: Causes, Prevention, and Cures," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, pages 1-16.
    20. repec:hrv:faseco:34721963 is not listed on IDEAS
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    More about this item


    The bipolar view Regime transition Crisis Developmental stage Markov model;

    JEL classification:

    • G2 - Financial Economics - - Financial Institutions and Services
    • F3 - International Economics - - International Finance


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