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Deconstructing distressed-property spillovers: The effects of vacant, tax-delinquent, and foreclosed properties in housing submarkets

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  • Whitaker, Stephan
  • Fitzpatrick IV, Thomas J.

Abstract

In this empirical analysis, we estimate the impacts of property-tax delinquency, vacancy, and foreclosures on the value of neighboring homes. We demonstrate that these externalities differ in high- and low-poverty submarkets. Numerous studies have estimated the externality of foreclosures. These papers theorize that the foreclosure impact works partially through creating vacant and neglected homes. To our knowledge, this is only the second attempt to estimate the impact of vacancy itself and the first to use tax-delinquency as a measure of property neglect. We link vacancy observations from Postal Service data with property-tax delinquency and sales data from Cuyahoga County, Ohio. We find that an additional property within 500ft that is vacant or delinquent reduces a home’s selling price by 1 to 2%. In low-poverty submarkets, the negative impact of a home that is both vacant and delinquent is −4.6%. Low-poverty submarkets penalize a sale near a tax-current recent foreclosure by 4 to 8%. In high-poverty submarkets, we observe positive correlations of sale prices with vacant foreclosures. This may reflect lenders selectively foreclosing only on relatively well-maintained properties.

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  • Whitaker, Stephan & Fitzpatrick IV, Thomas J., 2013. "Deconstructing distressed-property spillovers: The effects of vacant, tax-delinquent, and foreclosed properties in housing submarkets," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 79-91.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jhouse:v:22:y:2013:i:2:p:79-91
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jhe.2013.04.001
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    Cited by:

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    2. Paredes, Dusan & Skidmore, Mark, 2017. "The net benefit of demolishing dilapidated housing: The case of Detroit," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 66(C), pages 16-27.
    3. Jeffrey P. Cohen & Cletus C. Coughlin & Vincent W. Yao, 2016. "Sales of Distressed Residential Property: What Have We Learned from Recent Research?," Review, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, vol. 98(3), pages 159-188.
    4. Anthony Yezer & Yishen Liu, 2017. "Can Differences Deceive? The Case of “Foreclosure Externalities"," Working Papers 2017-29, The George Washington University, Institute for International Economic Policy.
    5. Douglas S. Noonan & Abdul‐Akeem A. Sadiq, 2018. "Flood Risk Management: Exploring the Impacts of the Community Rating System Program on Poverty and Income Inequality," Risk Analysis, John Wiley & Sons, vol. 38(3), pages 489-503, March.
    6. Gu, Donghwan & Newman, Galen & Kim, Jun-Hyun & Park, Yunmi & Lee, Jaekyung, 2019. "Neighborhood decline and mixed land uses: Mitigating housing abandonment in shrinking cities," Land Use Policy, Elsevier, vol. 83(C), pages 505-511.
    7. Agarwal, Sumit & Zhang, Yunqi, 2018. "Effects of government bailouts on mortgage modification," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 93(C), pages 54-70.
    8. Coulton, Claudia J. & Richter, Francisca & Kim, Seok-Joo & Fischer, Robert & Cho, Youngmin, 2016. "Temporal effects of distressed housing on early childhood risk factors and kindergarten readiness," Children and Youth Services Review, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 59-72.
    9. Prener, Chris & Braswell, Taylor & Monti, Daniel J., 2018. "St. Louis's "Urban Prairie": Vacant Land and the Potential for Revitalization," SocArXiv bc7eh, Center for Open Science.
    10. Schuetz, Jenny & Spader, Jonathan & Cortes, Alvaro, 2016. "Have distressed neighborhoods recovered? Evidence from the neighborhood stabilization program," Journal of Housing Economics, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 30-48.
    11. Anthony Yezer, 2016. "Testing the Association between Foreclosure and Nearby House Values: Can Differences Deceive?," Working Papers 2016-29, The George Washington University, Institute for International Economic Policy.
    12. Spader, Jonathan & Schuetz, Jenny & Cortes, Alvaro, 2016. "Fewer vacants, fewer crimes? Impacts of neighborhood revitalization policies on crime," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 73-84.
    13. Younghoon Lee & Sanghyo Lee & Jaejun Kim, 2017. "Analysis of the Dynamic Relationship between Fluctuations in the Korean Housing Market and the Occurrence of Unsold New Housing Stocks," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 9(1), pages 1-23, January.
    14. Fernando Ferreira & Joseph Gyourko, 2015. "A New Look at the U.S. Foreclosure Crisis: Panel Data Evidence of Prime and Subprime Borrowers from 1997 to 2012," NBER Working Papers 21261, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    15. Raven S. Molloy, 2014. "Long-Term Vacancy in the United States," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2014-73, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).
    16. Jeffrey P. Cohen & Cletus C. Coughlin & Jonas C. Crews, 2018. "Interregional Migration and Housing Vacancy: Theory and Empirics," Working Papers 2018-007, Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis, revised 16 Oct 2020.
    17. Lerbs, Oliver & Teske, Markus, 2016. "The house price-vacancy curve," ZEW Discussion Papers 16-082, ZEW - Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research.
    18. Molloy, Raven, 2016. "Long-term vacant housing in the United States," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 59(C), pages 118-129.
    19. Xu, Yilan, 2014. "Does mortgage deregulation increase foreclosures? Evidence from Cleveland," Regional Science and Urban Economics, Elsevier, vol. 46(C), pages 126-139.
    20. Jennifer Lewis Buell & Kimberly Burnett & Larry Buron & Alvaro Cortes & Michael DiDomenico & Anna Jefferson & Christian Redfearn & Jenny Schuetz & Jonathan Spader & Stephen Whitlow, 2015. "Which Way to Recovery? Housing Market Outcomes and the Neighborhood Stabilization Program," Finance and Economics Discussion Series 2015-4, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (U.S.).

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    More about this item

    Keywords

    Vacancy; Property tax delinquency; Foreclosure; Property values; Spatial Hedonic price models; R21; R31;
    All these keywords.

    JEL classification:

    • R21 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Household Analysis - - - Housing Demand
    • R31 - Urban, Rural, Regional, Real Estate, and Transportation Economics - - Real Estate Markets, Spatial Production Analysis, and Firm Location - - - Housing Supply and Markets

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