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Club deals in leveraged buyouts

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  • Officer, Micah S.
  • Ozbas, Oguzhan
  • Sensoy, Berk A.

Abstract

We analyze the pricing and characteristics of club deal leveraged buyouts (LBOs)--those in which two or more private equity partnerships jointly conduct an LBO. Using a comprehensive sample of completed LBOs of U.S. publicly traded targets conducted by prominent private equity firms, we find that target shareholders receive approximately 10% less of pre-bid firm equity value, or roughly 40% lower premiums, in club deals compared to sole-sponsored LBOs. This result is concentrated before 2006 and in target firms with low institutional ownership. These results are robust to controls for target and deal characteristics, including size, Q, measures of risk, and time and industry fixed effects. We find little support for benign motivations for club deals based on capital constraints, diversification motives, or the ability of clubs to obtain favorable debt amounts or prices, but it is possible that the lower pricing of club deals is an inadvertent byproduct of an unobserved benign motivation for club formation.

Suggested Citation

  • Officer, Micah S. & Ozbas, Oguzhan & Sensoy, Berk A., 2010. "Club deals in leveraged buyouts," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 98(2), pages 214-240, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jfinec:v:98:y:2010:i:2:p:214-240
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    Cited by:

    1. Colla, Paolo & Ippolito, Filippo & Wagner, Hannes F., 2012. "Leverage and pricing of debt in LBOs," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(1), pages 124-137.
    2. Fidrmuc, Jana P. & Roosenboom, Peter & Paap, Richard & Teunissen, Tim, 2012. "One size does not fit all: Selling firms to private equity versus strategic acquirers," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 18(4), pages 828-848.
    3. Boubaker, Sabri & Cellier, Alexis & Rouatbi, Wael, 2014. "The sources of shareholder wealth gains from going private transactions: The role of controlling shareholders," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 43(C), pages 226-246.
    4. Wessel, Stephan & Decker, Carolin & Lange, Knut S.G. & Hack, Andreas, 2014. "One size does not fit all: Entrepreneurial families’ reliance on family offices," European Management Journal, Elsevier, vol. 32(1), pages 37-45.
    5. Marquez, Robert & Singh, Rajdeep, 2013. "The economics of club bidding and value creation," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 108(2), pages 493-505.
    6. repec:eee:corfin:v:46:y:2017:i:c:p:186-206 is not listed on IDEAS
    7. Arcot, Sridhar & Fluck, Zsuzsanna & Gaspar, José-Miguel & Hege, Ulrich, 2015. "Fund managers under pressure: Rationale and determinants of secondary buyouts," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 115(1), pages 102-135.
    8. Cao, Jerry X. & Cumming, Douglas & Qian, Meijun & Wang, Xiaoming, 2015. "Cross-border LBOs," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 69-80.
    9. Cohn, Jonathan B. & Mills, Lillian F. & Towery, Erin M., 2014. "The evolution of capital structure and operating performance after leveraged buyouts: Evidence from U.S. corporate tax returns," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 111(2), pages 469-494.
    10. Boone, Audra L. & Mulherin, J. Harold, 2011. "Do private equity consortiums facilitate collusion in takeover bidding?," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(5), pages 1475-1495.
    11. Lloyd Blenman & Nischala Reddy, 2014. "Leveraged Buyout Activity: A Tale of Developed and Developing Economies," Journal of Financial Management, Markets and Institutions, Società editrice il Mulino, issue 2, pages 157-184, December.
    12. Kim, Tae-Nyun & Palia, Darius, 2014. "Private equity alliances in mergers," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 27(C), pages 10-20.
    13. Malenko, Andrey & Malenko, Nadya, 2015. "A theory of LBO activity based on repeated debt-equity conflicts," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 117(3), pages 607-627.
    14. Renneboog, Luc & Vansteenkiste, Cara, 2017. "Leveraged Buyouts : A Survey of the Literature," Discussion Paper 2017-015, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
    15. Hong Zhu & Qi Zhu, 2016. "Mergers and acquisitions by Chinese firms: A review and comparison with other mergers and acquisitions research in the leading journals," Asia Pacific Journal of Management, Springer, vol. 33(4), pages 1107-1149, December.
    16. Metrick, Andrew & Yasuda, Ayako, 2010. "Venture Capital and Other Private Equity: A Survey," Working Papers 11-06, University of Pennsylvania, Wharton School, Weiss Center.
    17. Fich, Eliezer M. & Harford, Jarrad & Tran, Anh L., 2015. "Motivated monitors: The importance of institutional investors׳ portfolio weights," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 118(1), pages 21-48.
    18. Cronqvist, Henrik & Fahlenbrach, Rüdiger, 2013. "CEO contract design: How do strong principals do it?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 108(3), pages 659-674.
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