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Pyramidal ownership and the creation of new firms

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  • Bena, Jan
  • Ortiz-Molina, Hernán

Abstract

We study the role of pyramidal ownership structures in the creation of new firms. Our results suggest that pyramids arise because they provide a financing advantage in setting up new firms when the pledgeability of cash flows to outside financiers is limited. Parent companies supply inside funds to new firms that, due to large investment requirements and low pledgeable cash flows, cannot raise enough external financing. The financing advantage of pyramidal structures is pervasive in many countries, exists regardless of whether new firms are set up by business groups or by smaller organizations, and is an important underpinning of entrepreneurial activity.

Suggested Citation

  • Bena, Jan & Ortiz-Molina, Hernán, 2013. "Pyramidal ownership and the creation of new firms," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 108(3), pages 798-821.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jfinec:v:108:y:2013:i:3:p:798-821
    DOI: 10.1016/j.jfineco.2013.01.009
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    Cited by:

    1. Lin, Tsui-Jung & Chang, Hai-Yen & Yu, Hui-Fun & Kao, Ching-Pao, 2019. "The impact of political connections and business groups on cash holdings: Evidence from Chinese listed firms," Global Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 40(C), pages 65-73.
    2. Opie, Wei & Tian, Gary Gang & Zhang, Hong Feng, 2019. "Corporate pyramids, geographical distance, and investment efficiency of Chinese state-owned enterprises," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 99(C), pages 95-120.
    3. Hearn, Bruce & Oxelheim, Lars & Randoy, Trond, 2020. "The Impact of Business Group Affiliation and Country-Level Institutions on Corporate Governance of Emerging Market Firms," Working Paper Series 1360, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
    4. William H. Beaver & Stefano Cascino & Maria Correia & Maureen F. McNichols, 2019. "Group Affiliation and Default Prediction," Management Science, INFORMS, vol. 65(8), pages 3559-3584, August.
    5. Stylianos Asimakopoulos & Filipa Da Silva Fernandes & Yiannis Karavias, 2020. "Firm Heterogeneity and Trade Credit Behaviour," Discussion Papers 20-20, Department of Economics, University of Birmingham.
    6. Bansal, Shashank & Thenmozhi, M., 2020. "Does concentrated founder ownership affect board independence? Role of corporate life cycle and ownership identity," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 62(C).
    7. Mark J. Flannery & Jan Hanousek & Anastasiya Shamshur & Jiri Tresl, 2020. "M&A Activity and the Capital Structure of Target Firms," CERGE-EI Working Papers wp661, The Center for Economic Research and Graduate Education - Economics Institute, Prague.
    8. Lin, James Juichia & Yeh, Yin-Hua, 2020. "Internal capital markets, ownership structure, and investment efficiency: Evidence from Taiwanese business groups," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 60(C).
    9. Park, Chan-Kyoo & Lee, Cheolwoo & Jeon, Jin Q., 2020. "Centrality and corporate governance decisions of Korean chaebols: A social network approach," Pacific-Basin Finance Journal, Elsevier, vol. 62(C).
    10. Caixe, Daniel Ferreira & Kalatzis, Aquiles Elie Guimarães & Castro, Luiz Ricardo Kabbach de, 2019. "Controlling shareholders and investment-risk sensitivity in an emerging economy," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 133-153.
    11. Cho, Duksang, 2019. "Pyramidal Business Groups and Asymmetric Financial Frictions," KDI Journal of Economic Policy, Korea Development Institute (KDI), vol. 41(3), pages 1-38.
    12. Keasey, Kevin & Martinez, Beatriz & Pindado, Julio, 2015. "Young family firms: Financing decisions and the willingness to dilute control," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 47-63.
    13. Kim, Soo Jin & Kim, Woojin & Yang, Dong Ryung, 2015. "Infant firms in emerging market: An analysis of stand-alones vs. subsidiaries," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 30-52.

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Ownership pyramids; Parent companies; Startups; New firms; Access to capital;

    JEL classification:

    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
    • G34 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Mergers; Acquisitions; Restructuring; Corporate Governance

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