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On the disequilibrium dynamics of sequential monetary economies


  • van der Hoog, Sander


The purpose of this paper is to study the dynamic behavior of a sequential monetary exchange economy. Transactions take place sequentially against non-equilibrium prices, there is quantity rationing, and credit or cash are the only means of exchange. Agents have optimistic or pessimistic expectations about quantity constraints that represent their beliefs about future trading opportunities. In the credit model the agents incur debts along the transition path towards equilibrium, while in the cash-in-advance model convergence takes place without the occurrence of any debts or claims. The credit mechanism is shown to act as a 'soft' correction mechanism on credit fluctuations, while the cash-in-advance constraint acts as a 'hard' negative feedback effect driving the prices back towards a neighborhood of a monetary cash-in-advance equilibrium.

Suggested Citation

  • van der Hoog, Sander, 2008. "On the disequilibrium dynamics of sequential monetary economies," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 68(3-4), pages 525-552, December.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jeborg:v:68:y:2008:i:3-4:p:525-552

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Robert L. Axtell, 2000. "Effect of Interaction Topology and Activation Regime in Several Multi-Agent Systems," Working Papers 00-07-039, Santa Fe Institute.
    2. Kiyotaki, Nobuhiro & Wright, Randall, 1989. "On Money as a Medium of Exchange," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 97(4), pages 927-954, August.
    3. Jean-Pascal Benassy, 1975. "Neo-Keynesian Disequilibrium Theory in a Monetary Economy," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 42(4), pages 503-523.
    4. Clower, Robert & Leijonhufvud, Axel, 1975. "The Coordination of Economic Activities: A Keynesian Perspective," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 65(2), pages 182-188, May.
    5. Green, Jerry, 1980. "On the Theory of Effective Demand," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 90(358), pages 341-353, June.
    6. Robert Axtell, 2005. "The Complexity of Exchange," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 115(504), pages 193-210, June.
    7. Weddepohl, Claus, 1995. "A cautious price adjustment mechanism: Chaotic behavior," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 27(2), pages 293-300, July.
    8. Zappia, Carlo, 2001. "Equilibrium and Disequilibrium Dynamics in the 1930s," Journal of the History of Economic Thought, Cambridge University Press, vol. 23(01), pages 55-75, March.
    9. Saari, Donald G, 1985. "Iterative Price Mechanisms," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 53(5), pages 1117-1131, September.
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    Cited by:

    1. Lengnick, Matthias & Krug, Sebastian & Wohltmann, Hans-Werner, 2013. "Money creation and financial instability: An agent-based credit network approach," Economics - The Open-Access, Open-Assessment E-Journal, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW), vol. 7, pages 1-44.
    2. Robert Jump, 2014. "Animal spirits and unemployment: a disequilibrium analysis," Journal of Economic Interaction and Coordination, Springer;Society for Economic Science with Heterogeneous Interacting Agents, vol. 9(2), pages 255-274, October.


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