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Gradual cooperation in the existence of outside options


  • Furusawa, Taiji
  • Kawakami, Toshikazu


The paper shows that efficient cooperation processes exhibit gradualism when each player does not know the likelihood that the other player exercises a stochastically available outside option. Two players, asymmetrically informed on this likelihood, play an infinitely repeated prisoner's dilemma game. Each player is either the high type with the high probability to obtain the outside option or the low type. As time proceeds with neither player exercising the outside option, each player puts more probability on the belief that his partner is the low type, enabling the players to raise cooperation levels in the efficient pooling equilibrium.

Suggested Citation

  • Furusawa, Taiji & Kawakami, Toshikazu, 2008. "Gradual cooperation in the existence of outside options," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 68(2), pages 378-389, November.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jeborg:v:68:y:2008:i:2:p:378-389

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Takako Fujiwara-Greve & Masahiro Okuno-Fujiwara, 2009. "Voluntarily Separable Repeated Prisoner's Dilemma," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 76(3), pages 993-1021.
    2. Toshikazu Kawakami, 2010. "Collusion And Predation Under The Condition Of Stochastic Bankruptcy," The Japanese Economic Review, Japanese Economic Association, vol. 61(3), pages 408-426.
    3. Takashi Kamihigashi & Taiji Furusawa, 2007. "Global Dynamics in Infinitely Repeated Games with Additively Separable Continuous Payoffs," Discussion Paper Series 210, Research Institute for Economics & Business Administration, Kobe University.


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