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General theory of cultures' consequences on international tourism behavior


  • Woodside, Arch G.
  • Hsu, Shih-Yun
  • Marshall, Roger


National cultures represent complex configurations of values rather than a collection of distinct individual value dimensions. This presentation applies qualitative (configural) comparative analysis (QCA/CCA) to consider how cultural recipes--complex configurations of national culture affect international experiential behavior. The QCA method focuses on considering asymmetric relationships--reporting conditions that are sufficient (but not necessary) to cause an outcome condition (e.g., high-dollar expenditures). Using measures of consistency and coverage the QCA method provides estimates of how well alternative configurative models explain behavior rather than relying on symmetric data analysis methods (correlations and multiple regression). The method includes the use of Hofstede's country value scores with data from group-level and sub-group (by age and prior consumption experience) exit survey responses of visitors to Australia from 14 Asian, European, and North American countries. The analysis applies QCA software ( and the presentation includes XY plots of country-level value configurations and group-level consumption for total visit expenditures, length of visit, shopping behavior, and group touring behavior.

Suggested Citation

  • Woodside, Arch G. & Hsu, Shih-Yun & Marshall, Roger, 2011. "General theory of cultures' consequences on international tourism behavior," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 64(8), pages 785-799, August.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jbrese:v:64:y:2011:i:8:p:785-799

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Ragin, Charles C., 2000. "Fuzzy-Set Social Science," University of Chicago Press Economics Books, University of Chicago Press, edition 1, number 9780226702773, July.
    2. Lynn, Michael & Zinkhan, George M & Harris, Judy, 1993. " Consumer Tipping: A Cross-Country Study," Journal of Consumer Research, Oxford University Press, vol. 20(3), pages 478-488, December.
    3. repec:ucp:bkecon:9780226702766 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Soares, Ana Maria & Farhangmehr, Minoo & Shoham, Aviv, 2007. "Hofstede's dimensions of culture in international marketing studies," Journal of Business Research, Elsevier, vol. 60(3), pages 277-284, March.
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