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Minimum variance hedging when spot price changes are partially predictable

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  • Ederington, Louis H.
  • Salas, Jesus M.

Abstract

In many markets, changes in the spot price are partially predictable. We show that when this is the case: (1) although unbiased, traditional regression estimates of the minimum variance hedge ratio are inefficient, (2) estimates of the riskiness of both hedged and unhedged positions are biased upward, and (3) estimates of the percentage risk reduction achievable through hedging are biased downward. For natural gas cross hedges, we find that both the inefficiency and bias are substantial. We further find that incorporating the expected change in the spot price, as measured by the futures-spot price spread at the beginning of the hedge, into the regression results in a substantial increase in efficiency and reduction in the bias.

Suggested Citation

  • Ederington, Louis H. & Salas, Jesus M., 2008. "Minimum variance hedging when spot price changes are partially predictable," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(5), pages 654-663, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:jbfina:v:32:y:2008:i:5:p:654-663
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Donald Lien & Y. K. Tse & Albert Tsui, 2002. "Evaluating the hedging performance of the constant-correlation GARCH model," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 12(11), pages 791-798.
    2. Lien, Donald & Tse, Y K, 2002. " Some Recent Developments in Futures Hedging," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 16(3), pages 357-396, July.
    3. Kroner, Kenneth F. & Sultan, Jahangir, 1993. "Time-Varying Distributions and Dynamic Hedging with Foreign Currency Futures," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 28(04), pages 535-551, December.
    4. Hilliard, Jimmy E, 1984. " Hedging Interest Rate Risk with Futures Portfolios under Term Structure Effects," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 39(5), pages 1547-1570, December.
    5. Fama, Eugene F & French, Kenneth R, 1987. "Commodity Futures Prices: Some Evidence on Forecast Power, Premiums,and the Theory of Storage," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 60(1), pages 55-73, January.
    6. Ederington, Louis H, 1979. "The Hedging Performance of the New Futures Markets," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 34(1), pages 157-170, March.
    7. P. V. Viswanath, 1993. "Efficient use of information, convergence adjustments, and regression estimates of hedge ratios," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 13(1), pages 43-53, February.
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    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:eneeco:v:63:y:2017:i:c:p:174-184 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Martínez, Beatriz & Torró, Hipòlit, 2018. "Hedging spark spread risk with futures," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 113(C), pages 731-746.
    3. Martínez, Beatriz & Torró, Hipòlit, 2015. "European natural gas seasonal effects on futures hedging," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 154-168.
    4. Fu, Junhui, 2014. "Multi-objective hedging model with the third central moment and the capital budget," Economic Modelling, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 213-219.
    5. Zanotti, Giovanna & Gabbi, Giampaolo & Geranio, Manuela, 2010. "Hedging with futures: Efficacy of GARCH correlation models to European electricity markets," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 20(2), pages 135-148, April.
    6. Nicolau, Mihaela & Palomba, Giulio, 2015. "Dynamic relationships between spot and futures prices. The case of energy and gold commodities," Resources Policy, Elsevier, vol. 45(C), pages 130-143.
    7. repec:taf:eurjfi:v:22:y:2016:i:15:p:1534-1560 is not listed on IDEAS
    8. Rozaimah Zainudin & Roselee Shah Shaharudin, 2011. "Multi Mean Garch Approach to Evaluating Hedging Performance in the Crude Palm Oil Futures Market," Asian Academy of Management Journal of Accounting and Finance (AAMJAF), Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, vol. 7(1), pages 111-130.
    9. repec:eee:eneeco:v:63:y:2017:i:c:p:92-105 is not listed on IDEAS
    10. Mihaela NICOLAU & Giulio PALOMBA & Ilaria TRAINI, 2013. "Are Futures Prices Influenced by Spot;Prices or Vice-versa? An Analysis of Crude;Oil, Natural Gas and Gold Markets," Working Papers 394, Universita' Politecnica delle Marche (I), Dipartimento di Scienze Economiche e Sociali.
    11. Caporin, Massimiliano, 2013. "Equity and CDS sector indices: Dynamic models and risk hedging," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 261-275.
    12. Torro, Hipolit, 2009. "Assessing the influence of spot price predictability on electricity futures hedging," MPRA Paper 18892, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. Thomas Conlon & John Cotter & Ramazan Gençay, 2016. "Commodity futures hedging, risk aversion and the hedging horizon," The European Journal of Finance, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 22(15), pages 1534-1560, December.
    14. Lee, Hsiang-Tai, 2010. "Regime switching correlation hedging," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 34(11), pages 2728-2741, November.

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