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Internationalization paths of Indian pharmaceutical firms -- A strategic group analysis

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  • Chittoor, Raveendra
  • Ray, Sougata

Abstract

This paper is an attempt to throw light on the internationalization paths of emerging economy firms through a strategic group analysis of internationalizing firms in the Indian pharmaceutical industry. Strategic group analysis of a proprietary data set of strategic variables from forty firms revealed significant variation in their internationalization strategies. The distinct strategies exhibited different value creation potential, but led to similar levels of performance in terms of return on assets, thus indicating equifinality of different paths to multinationality. Inductively drawing from in-depth analysis of firms from each of the strategic groups, the paper proposes a conceptual model of internationalization for emerging economy firms through a combination of exploitation and exploration strategies along the dimensions of products and markets. Firms that are able to supplement the conventional exploitation strategies with exploration through new products and new markets, by taking advantage of increasingly liberalized economies, could emerge as Third-world multinationals with capabilities that could potentially challenge even MNCs from the developed world.

Suggested Citation

  • Chittoor, Raveendra & Ray, Sougata, 2007. "Internationalization paths of Indian pharmaceutical firms -- A strategic group analysis," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 338-355, September.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:intman:v:13:y:2007:i:3:p:338-355
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Antreas D. Athanassopoulos, 2003. "Strategic Groups, Frontier Benchmarking and Performance Differences: Evidence from the UK Retail Grocery Industry," Journal of Management Studies, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 40(4), pages 921-953, June.
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    2. repec:spr:manint:v:55:y:2015:i:2:d:10.1007_s11575-015-0242-y is not listed on IDEAS
    3. Demirbag, Mehmet & Tatoglu, Ekrem & Glaister, Keith W., 2009. "Equity-based entry modes of emerging country multinationals: Lessons from Turkey," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 44(4), pages 445-462, October.
    4. Agnihotri, Arpita & Bhattacharya, Saurabh, 2015. "Determinants of export intensity in emerging markets: An upper echelon perspective," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 50(4), pages 687-695.
    5. Anna Lamin & Miguel A. Ramos, 2016. "R&D investment dynamics in agglomerations under weak appropriability regimes: Evidence from Indian R&D labs," Strategic Management Journal, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 37(3), pages 604-621, March.
    6. Karthik, D. & Upadhyayula, Rajesh & Basant, Rakesh, 2015. "Strategic Paths and Performance of Born Globals: A Study of Indian IT Firms," IIMA Working Papers WP2015-03-36, Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad, Research and Publication Department.
    7. Alessia Amighini & Claudio Cozza & Elisa Giuliani & Roberta Rabellotti & Vittoria Scalera, 2015. "Multinational enterprises from emerging economies: what theories suggest, what evidence shows. A literature review," Economia e Politica Industriale: Journal of Industrial and Business Economics, Springer;Associazione Amici di Economia e Politica Industriale, vol. 42(3), pages 343-370, September.
    8. repec:spr:manint:v:52:y:2012:i:5:d:10.1007_s11575-011-0115-y is not listed on IDEAS
    9. Yuksel Ayden, 2015. "A Critical Review of Theoretical Perspectives on Emerging Economy Multinationals," European Journal of Economic and Political Studies, Fatih University, vol. 8(1), pages 19-42.
    10. Sahaym, Arvin & Nam, Daeil, 2013. "International diversification of the emerging-market enterprises: A multi-level examination," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 22(2), pages 421-436.
    11. Tolentino, Paz Estrella, 2010. "Home country macroeconomic factors and outward FDI of China and India," Journal of International Management, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 102-120, June.
    12. repec:kap:asiapa:v:34:y:2017:i:2:d:10.1007_s10490-016-9489-5 is not listed on IDEAS
    13. Tolentino, Paz Estrella, 2008. "The determinants of the outward foreign direct investment of China and India: Whither the home country?," MERIT Working Papers 049, United Nations University - Maastricht Economic and Social Research Institute on Innovation and Technology (MERIT).
    14. O’Connor, Neale G. & Vera-Muñoz, Sandra C. & Chan, Francis, 2011. "Competitive forces and the importance of management control systems in emerging-economy firms: The moderating effect of international market orientation," Accounting, Organizations and Society, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 246-266.
    15. repec:eee:worbus:v:53:y:2018:i:2:p:104-117 is not listed on IDEAS
    16. Balcet Giovanni & Bruschieri Silvia, 2009. "Indian multinationals in the automotive and the pharmaceutical sectors: competitive advantages and strategies," Department of Economics and Statistics Cognetti de Martiis. Working Papers 200906, University of Turin.
    17. repec:kap:asiapa:v:34:y:2017:i:4:d:10.1007_s10490-017-9527-y is not listed on IDEAS
    18. Roderick Bugador, 2015. "The Competitive Advantages And Internationalization Of Emerging Economy Business Groups," Polish Journal of Management Studies, Czestochowa Technical University, Department of Management, vol. 12(1), pages 26-36, DEcember.
    19. Wrona, Thomas & Trąpczyński, Piotr, 2012. "Re-explaining international entry modes – Interaction and moderating effects on entry modes of pharmaceutical companies into transition economies," European Management Journal, Elsevier, vol. 30(4), pages 295-315.
    20. Nair, Smitha R. & Demirbag, Mehmet & Mellahi, Kamel, 2016. "Reverse knowledge transfer in emerging market multinationals: The Indian context," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 152-164.

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