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The solution to the forward-bias puzzle

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  • Pippenger, John

Abstract

Although it has taken some 30 years to find, the solution to the forward-bias puzzle is straightforward. The standard test equation that produces the puzzle is missing two variables that covered interest parity implies should be included. For my data, those two missing variables explain the downward bias in the forward-bias puzzle. Covered interest parity also solves another closely related puzzle. The variance for changes in exchange rates is 100-200 times larger than the variance in forward premiums.

Suggested Citation

  • Pippenger, John, 2011. "The solution to the forward-bias puzzle," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 21(2), pages 296-304, April.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:intfin:v:21:y:2011:i:2:p:296-304
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    1. Maurice Obstfeld & Kenneth Rogoff, 2001. "The Six Major Puzzles in International Macroeconomics: Is There a Common Cause?," NBER Chapters,in: NBER Macroeconomics Annual 2000, Volume 15, pages 339-412 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    2. Hochradl, Markus & Wagner, Christian, 2010. "Trading the forward bias: Are there limits to speculation?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 423-441, April.
    3. repec:ebl:ecbull:v:6:y:2008:i:42:p:1-17 is not listed on IDEAS
    4. Frankel, Jeffrey & Poonawala, Jumana, 2010. "The forward market in emerging currencies: Less biased than in major currencies," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 29(3), pages 585-598, April.
    5. Mark E. Wohar & Nathan S. Balke, 1998. "Nonlinear dynamics and covered interest rate parity," Empirical Economics, Springer, vol. 23(4), pages 535-559.
    6. Chakraborty, Avik & Evans, George W., 2008. "Can perpetual learning explain the forward-premium puzzle?," Journal of Monetary Economics, Elsevier, vol. 55(3), pages 477-490, April.
    7. Sercu, Piet & Vinaimont, Tom, 2006. "The forward bias in the ECU: Peso risks vs. fads and fashions," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 30(8), pages 2409-2432, August.
    8. Jonathan Kearns, 2007. "Commodity Currencies: Why Are Exchange Rate Futures Biased if Commodity Futures Are Not?," The Economic Record, The Economic Society of Australia, vol. 83(260), pages 60-73, March.
    9. Baillie, Richard T. & Kilic, Rehim, 2006. "Do asymmetric and nonlinear adjustments explain the forward premium anomaly?," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 25(1), pages 22-47, February.
    10. Lucio Sarno & Giorgio Valente & Hyginus Leon, 2006. "Nonlinearity in Deviations from Uncovered Interest Parity: An Explanation of the Forward Bias Puzzle," Review of Finance, European Finance Association, vol. 10(3), pages 443-482, September.
    11. Lucio Sarno, 2005. "Viewpoint: Towards a solution to the puzzles in exchange rate economics: where do we stand?," Canadian Journal of Economics, Canadian Economics Association, vol. 38(3), pages 673-708, August.
    12. Akram, Q. Farooq & Rime, Dagfinn & Sarno, Lucio, 2008. "Arbitrage in the foreign exchange market: Turning on the microscope," Journal of International Economics, Elsevier, vol. 76(2), pages 237-253, December.
    13. Philippe Bacchetta & Eric van Wincoop, 2010. "Infrequent Portfolio Decisions: A Solution to the Forward Discount Puzzle," American Economic Review, American Economic Association, vol. 100(3), pages 870-904, June.
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    Citations

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    Cited by:

    1. Nagayasu, Jun, 2012. "Long-Run Implications of the Covered Interest Rate Parity Condition: Evidence during the Recent Crisis and Non-Crisis Periods," MPRA Paper 41566, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    2. Zhao, Yanping & de Haan, Jakob & Scholtens, Bert & Yang, Haizhen, 2013. "The relationship between the Renminbi future spot return and the forward discount rate," Journal of International Money and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 32(C), pages 156-168.
    3. Reus, Lorenzo & Mulvey, John M., 2016. "Dynamic allocations for currency futures under switching regimes signals," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 253(1), pages 85-93.
    4. Dominique Torre, 2012. "The monetary views of Paul Einzig," Post-Print halshs-00726126, HAL.
    5. Christian, Müller, 2011. "The forward-bias puzzle: Still unsolved," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 605-610, October.
    6. Nagayasu, Jun, 2011. "The threshold nonstationary panel data approach to forward premiums," MPRA Paper 34265, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    7. John, Pippenger, 2011. "The solution to the forward-bias puzzle: Reply," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 629-636, October.
    8. Pippenger, John, 2013. "The Failure Of Uncovered Interest Parity, Forward Bias And Related Puzzles," University of California at Santa Barbara, Economics Working Paper Series qt50n5p8bv, Department of Economics, UC Santa Barbara.
    9. Alan, King, 2011. "A comment on: "The solution to the forward-bias puzzleâ," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 623-628, October.
    10. Grossmann, Axel & Lee, Allissa A. & Simpson, Marc W., 2014. "Forward premium anomaly of the British pound and the euro," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 140-156.
    11. Sanders S., Chang, 2011. "On the (in)feasibility of covered interest parity as a solution to the forward bias puzzle," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 21(4), pages 611-616, October.
    12. Shehadeh, Ali & Li, Youwei & Moore, Michael, 2016. "The Forward Premium Bias, Carry Trade Return and the Risks of Volatility and Liquidity," MPRA Paper 71709, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    13. Simpson, Marc W. & Grossmann, Axel, 2014. "An examination of the forward prediction error of U.S. dollar exchange rates and how they are related to bid-ask spreads, purchasing power parity disequilibria, and forward premium asymmetry," The North American Journal of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 28(C), pages 221-238.
    14. Li, Jing & Miller, Norman C., 2015. "Foreign exchange market inefficiency and exchange rate anomalies," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 311-320.
    15. Norman C. Miller, 2014. "Exchange Rate Economics," Books, Edward Elgar Publishing, number 14981, April.
    16. King, Alan, 2011. "Pippenger's CIP-based solution to the forward-bias puzzle: A rejoinder," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 21(5), pages 867-873.
    17. Kumar, Satish & Trück, Stefan, 2014. "Unbiasedness and risk premiums in the Indian currency futures market," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 29(C), pages 13-32.

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