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Asset allocation, sustainable withdrawal, longevity risk and non-exponential discounting


  • Delong, Łukasz
  • Chen, An


The present paper studies an optimal withdrawal and investment problem for a retiree who is interested in sustaining her retirement consumption above a pre-specified minimum consumption level. Apparently, the withdrawal and investment policy depends substantially on the retiree’s health condition and her time preferences (subjective discount factor). We assume that the health of the retiree can worsen or improve in an unpredictable way over her lifetime and model the retiree’s mortality intensity by a stochastic process. In order to make the decision about the consumption and investment policy more realistic, we assume that the retiree applies a non-exponential discount factor (an exponential discount factor with a small amount of hyperbolic discounting) to value her future income. In other words, we consider an optimization problem by combining four important aspects: asset allocation, sustainable withdrawal, longevity risk and non-exponential discounting. Due to the non-exponential discount factor, we have to solve a time-inconsistent optimization problem. We derive a non-local HJB equation which characterizes the equilibrium optimal investment and consumption strategy. We establish the first-order expansions of the equilibrium value function and the equilibrium strategies by applying expansion techniques. The expansion is performed on the parameter controlling the degree of discounting in the hyperbolic discounting that is added to the exponential discount factors. The first-order equilibrium investment and consumption strategies can be calculated in a feasible way by solving PDEs.

Suggested Citation

  • Delong, Łukasz & Chen, An, 2016. "Asset allocation, sustainable withdrawal, longevity risk and non-exponential discounting," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 71(C), pages 342-352.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:insuma:v:71:y:2016:i:c:p:342-352
    DOI: 10.1016/j.insmatheco.2016.10.002

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Norberg, Ragnar, 2010. "Forward mortality and other vital rates -- Are they the way forward?," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 47(2), pages 105-112, October.
    2. LUCIANO, Elisa & VIGNA, Elena, 2008. "Mortality risk via affine stochastic intensities: calibration and empirical relevance," MPRA Paper 59627, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    3. Erzo G. J. Luttmer & Thomas Mariotti, 2003. "Subjective Discounting in an Exchange Economy," Journal of Political Economy, University of Chicago Press, vol. 111(5), pages 959-989, October.
    4. repec:dau:papers:123456789/11473 is not listed on IDEAS
    5. Munk, Claus, 2008. "Portfolio and consumption choice with stochastic investment opportunities and habit formation in preferences," Journal of Economic Dynamics and Control, Elsevier, vol. 32(11), pages 3560-3589, November.
    6. Luciano, Elisa & Spreeuw, Jaap & Vigna, Elena, 2008. "Modelling stochastic mortality for dependent lives," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 43(2), pages 234-244, October.
    7. George Loewenstein & Drazen Prelec, 1992. "Anomalies in Intertemporal Choice: Evidence and an Interpretation," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(2), pages 573-597.
    8. Guambe, Calisto & Kufakunesu, Rodwell, 2015. "A note on optimal investment–consumption–insurance in a Lévy market," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 65(C), pages 30-36.
    9. Menahem E. Yaari, 1965. "Uncertain Lifetime, Life Insurance, and the Theory of the Consumer," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 32(2), pages 137-150.
    10. Olivieri, Annamaria & Pitacco, Ermanno, 2009. "Stochastic Mortality: The Impact on Target Capital," ASTIN Bulletin: The Journal of the International Actuarial Association, Cambridge University Press, vol. 39(02), pages 541-563, November.
    11. Huang, Huaxiong & Milevsky, Moshe A. & Salisbury, Thomas S., 2012. "Optimal retirement consumption with a stochastic force of mortality," Insurance: Mathematics and Economics, Elsevier, vol. 51(2), pages 282-291.
    12. Huaxiong Huang & Moshe A. Milevsky & Thomas S. Salisbury, 2012. "Optimal retirement consumption with a stochastic force of mortality," Papers 1205.2295,
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    Cited by:

    1. repec:eee:dyncon:v:84:y:2017:i:c:p:58-76 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Huaxiong Huang & Moshe A. Milevsky & Thomas S. Salisbury, 2018. "Retirement spending and biological age," Papers 1811.09921,

    More about this item


    Hyperbolic discounting; Time-inconsistent optimization problem; Non-local HJB equation; Equilibrium strategies; PDE;

    JEL classification:

    • C6 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Mathematical Methods; Programming Models; Mathematical and Simulation Modeling
    • G1 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets
    • D9 - Microeconomics - - Micro-Based Behavioral Economics


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