Measuring international competitiveness: The case of the European food industry
Indices of international competitiveness are generally trade based, such as the index of revealed comparative advantage. This paper argues that international production should be taken into account in the measurement of international competitiveness in an age when it often exceeds trade. Consequently, based on alternative views of the relative importance of inward and outward foreign production, various modifications of traditional indices are presented and discussed. An empirical application carried out for the food processing sectors of France, Germany, Italy and the United Kingdom, shows that the modified indices differ substantially from the conventional ones in both the level and, more importantly, the trends in the competitiveness measures.
Volume (Year): 5 (1996)
Issue (Month): 2 (April)
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- Kojima, Kiyoshi, 1982. "Macroeconomic versus International Business Approach to Direct Foreign Investment," Hitotsubashi Journal of Economics, Hitotsubashi University, vol. 23(1), pages 1-19, June.
- V N Balasubramanyam, "undated". "Entrepreneurship and the Growth of the Firm: The Case of the British Food and Drink Firms," Working Papers ec8/91, Department of Economics, University of Lancaster.
- Kravis, Irving B & Lipsey, Robert E, 1992. "Sources of Competitiveness of the United States and of Its Multinational Firms," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 74(2), pages 193-201, May.
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