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Sources of Competitiveness of the United States and of Its Multinational Firms

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  • Kravis, Irving B
  • Lipsey, Robert E

Abstract

This paper compares the industry characteristics that determine U.S. export competitiveness with those that affect the export competitiveness of U.S. multinationals. Higher R&D and human capital intensities are associated with high U.S. shares in exports and, more strongly with high U.S. multinationals' shares, and higher labor content with low shares. Within the multinationals, high R&D intensity leads to a larger share of the firms' exports being supplied from the U.S. parent. The higher the labor intensity and the level of advertising expenditures in an industry, the larger the proportion of the firms' exports supplied by the foreign affiliates. Copyright 1992 by MIT Press.

Suggested Citation

  • Kravis, Irving B & Lipsey, Robert E, 1992. "Sources of Competitiveness of the United States and of Its Multinational Firms," The Review of Economics and Statistics, MIT Press, vol. 74(2), pages 193-201, May.
  • Handle: RePEc:tpr:restat:v:74:y:1992:i:2:p:193-201
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    Cited by:

    1. Stefano Federico & Gaetano Alfredo Minerva, 2008. "Outward FDI and Local Employment Growth in Italy," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 144(2), pages 295-324, July.
    2. Fors, Gunnar & Svensson, Roger, 2002. "R&D and foreign sales in Swedish multinationals: a simultaneous relationship?," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 31(1), pages 95-107, January.
    3. Robert E. Lipsey & Magnus Blomstrom & Eric D. Ramstetter, 1998. "Internationalized Production in World Output," NBER Chapters,in: Geography and Ownership as Bases for Economic Accounting, pages 83-138 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    4. Michael B. Devereux & Charles Engel, 2001. "The Optimal Choice of Exchange Rate Regime: Price-Setting Rules and Internationalized Production," NBER Chapters,in: Topics in Empirical International Economics: A Festschrift in Honor of Robert E. Lipsey, pages 163-194 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    5. James R. Markusen & Keith E. Maskus, 2001. "Multinational Firms: Reconciling Theory and Evidence," NBER Chapters,in: Topics in Empirical International Economics: A Festschrift in Honor of Robert E. Lipsey, pages 71-98 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    6. Pontus Braunerhjelm, 1999. "Sunk costs, firm size and internationalization," Review of World Economics (Weltwirtschaftliches Archiv), Springer;Institut für Weltwirtschaft (Kiel Institute for the World Economy), vol. 135(4), pages 657-674, December.
    7. Giancarlo Corsetti & John Flemming & Seppo Honkapohja & Willi Leibfritz & Gilles Saint-Paul & Hans-Werner Sinn & Xavier Vives, 2002. "Growth and Productivity," EEAG Report on the European Economy, CESifo Group Munich, vol. 0, pages 57-70, April.
    8. Mani, Sunil, 2000. "Exports of High Technology Products from Developing Countries: Is it Real or a Statistical Artifact?," UNU-INTECH Discussion Paper Series 1, United Nations University - INTECH.
    9. Morgenroth, Edgar & FitzGerald, John & FitzGerald, John, 2006. "Productive Sector," Book Chapters,in: Morgenroth, Edgar (ed.), Ex-Ante Evaluation of the Investment Priorities for the National Development Plan 2007-2013, chapter 20, pages 257-277 Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
    10. Dominique Peters, 2010. "Price Competitiveness in Central and Eastern Europe - a case study for transition economies," IMK Studies 01-2010, IMK at the Hans Boeckler Foundation, Macroeconomic Policy Institute.
    11. J. David Richardson & Chi Zhang, 2001. "Revealing Comparative Advantage: Chaotic or Coherent Patterns across Time and Sector and U.S. Trading Partner?," NBER Chapters,in: Topics in Empirical International Economics: A Festschrift in Honor of Robert E. Lipsey, pages 195-232 National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    12. Morgenroth, Edgar & FitzGerald, John & FitzGerald, John, 2006. "Summary and Conclusions," Book Chapters,in: Morgenroth, Edgar (ed.), Ex-Ante Evaluation of the Investment Priorities for the National Development Plan 2007-2013, chapter 24, pages 317-333 Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
      • Baker, Terence J. & FitzGerald, John & Honohan, Patrick & FitzGerald, John & Honohan, Patrick, 1996. "Summary and Conclusions," Book Chapters,in: Baker, Terence J. (ed.), Economic Implications for Ireland of EMU, chapter 12, pages 339-352 Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
    13. Man, Thomas W. Y. & Lau, Theresa & Chan, K. F., 2002. "The competitiveness of small and medium enterprises: A conceptualization with focus on entrepreneurial competencies," Journal of Business Venturing, Elsevier, vol. 17(2), pages 123-142, March.
    14. Lee, Seung-Hyun & Makhija, Mona & Paik, Yongsun, 2008. "The value of real options investments under abnormal uncertainty: The case of the Korean economic crisis," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 43(1), pages 16-34, January.
    15. Robert E. Lipsey, 1992. "Foreign Direct Investment in the U.S.: Changes Over Three Decades," NBER Working Papers 4124, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
    16. Traill, Bruce & da Silva, Joao Gomes, 1996. "Measuring international competitiveness: The case of the European food industry," International Business Review, Elsevier, vol. 5(2), pages 151-166, April.
    17. Fors, Gunnar & Svensson , Roger, 1996. "R&D and Foreign Sales in Multinationals: A Simultaneous Relationship?," Working Paper Series 457, Research Institute of Industrial Economics.
    18. Foders, Federico, 1995. "The technological specialization of Europe in the 1990s," Kiel Working Papers 675, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    19. Böhringer, Christoph & Garcia-Muros, Xaquin & Cazcarro, Ignacio & Arto, Iñaki, 2017. "The efficiency cost of protective measures in climate policy," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 104(C), pages 446-454.
    20. Foders, Federico & Stoll, Peter-Tobias & Townsend-Gault, Ian & Wolfrum, Rüdiger, 1993. "Marktzutrittsbarrieren in den USA und Kanada: Der Markt für meerestechnische Güter und Dienstleistungen," Open Access Publications from Kiel Institute for the World Economy 788, Kiel Institute for the World Economy (IfW).
    21. Lee, Seung-Hyun & Beamish, Paul W. & Lee, Ho-Uk & Park, Jong-Hun, 2009. "Strategic choice during economic crisis: Domestic market position, organizational capabilities and export flexibility," Journal of World Business, Elsevier, vol. 44(1), pages 1-15, January.

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