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The growth of alliances in the knowledge-based economy

  • Contractor, F. J.
  • Lorange, P.
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    The prime objective of this article is to identify the environmental and regulatory conditions which have fostered the rapid growth of alliances. By "alliance" we include all cooperative arrangements -- from "relational contracting" to equity joint ventures. Far from a transient fad, or slowing down, as some observers predicted, the rate of alliance formation may even be picking up in an economy based on ideas rather than material objects. An economy of objects emphasizes mass production, internalized ownership, control and vertical integration. An economy based on knowledge favors customization, flexibility, rapid response and dis-internalization or deconstruction of the value chain. This article shows how this trend favors alliances, as different pieces of the value chain under different ownership may increasingly cooperate with each other. The article traces the role of information technology and the underlying regulatory, economic and competitive conditions that are fostering the creation of alliances.

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    File URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0969593102000215
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    Article provided by Elsevier in its journal International Business Review.

    Volume (Year): 11 (2002)
    Issue (Month): 4 (August)
    Pages: 485-502

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    Handle: RePEc:eee:iburev:v:11:y:2002:i:4:p:485-502
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    1. John H Dunning, 1980. "Towards an Eclectic Theory of International Production: Some Empirical Tests," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 11(1), pages 9-31, March.
    2. Mowery, David C. & Oxley, Joanne E. & Silverman, Brian S., 1998. "Technological overlap and interfirm cooperation: implications for the resource-based view of the firm," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 27(5), pages 507-523, September.
    3. Farok J Contractor & Sumit K Kundu, 1998. "Modal Choice in a World of Alliances: Analyzing Organizational Forms in the International Hotel Sector," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 29(2), pages 325-356, June.
    4. Tobin, James, 1969. "A General Equilibrium Approach to Monetary Theory," Journal of Money, Credit and Banking, Blackwell Publishing, vol. 1(1), pages 15-29, February.
    5. Richard E Caves, 1998. "Research on International Business: Problems and Prospects," Journal of International Business Studies, Palgrave Macmillan, vol. 29(1), pages 5-19, March.
    6. Gould, David M. & Gruben, William C., 1996. "The role of intellectual property rights in economic growth," Journal of Development Economics, Elsevier, vol. 48(2), pages 323-350, March.
    7. Oxley, Joanne E., 1999. "Institutional environment and the mechanisms of governance: the impact of intellectual property protection on the structure of inter-firm alliances," Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, Elsevier, vol. 38(3), pages 283-309, March.
    8. Kogut, Bruce & Walker, Gordon & Kim, Dong-Jae, 1995. "Cooperation and entry induction as an extension of technological rivalry," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 24(1), pages 77-95, January.
    9. Ginarte, Juan C. & Park, Walter G., 1997. "Determinants of patent rights: A cross-national study," Research Policy, Elsevier, vol. 26(3), pages 283-301, October.
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