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Index futures volatility and trading activity: Measuring causality at a multiple horizon


  • Jena, Sangram Keshari
  • Tiwari, Aviral Kumar
  • Roubaud, David
  • Shahbaz, Muhammad


Copeland (1976) and Shalen (1993) state that the causal relationship between trading activity variables, such as volume, open interest and volatility, the three most important factors for traders and portfolio managers, extends beyond one day. However, the literature on causality thus far concerns a one-day horizon. In this study, we provide a more powerful causality test by measuring the strength of the causal relationship over a multiple horizon. The robustness of the results is analysed by splitting the sample into two period pre and post 2008 crisis. Our findings may impact the designing of trading strategies.

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  • Jena, Sangram Keshari & Tiwari, Aviral Kumar & Roubaud, David & Shahbaz, Muhammad, 2018. "Index futures volatility and trading activity: Measuring causality at a multiple horizon," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 24(C), pages 247-255.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:finlet:v:24:y:2018:i:c:p:247-255
    DOI: 10.1016/

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Moonis Shakeel & Shahid Ashraf, 2012. "Empirical Relationship Between Index Futures Prices, Volume and Open Interest: Evidence from Indian Futures Market," The IUP Journal of Applied Finance, IUP Publications, vol. 18(3), pages 48-66, July.
    2. Shalen, Catherine T, 1993. "Volume, Volatility, and the Dispersion of Beliefs," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 6(2), pages 405-434.
    3. Ross, Stephen A., 1976. "The arbitrage theory of capital asset pricing," Journal of Economic Theory, Elsevier, vol. 13(3), pages 341-360, December.
    4. James C. Luu & Martin Martens, 2003. "Testing the mixture‐of‐distributions hypothesis using “realized” volatility," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 23(7), pages 661-679, July.
    5. Janusz Brzeszczynski & Michael Melvin, 2006. "Explaining trading volume in the euro," International Journal of Finance & Economics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 11(1), pages 25-34.
    6. Roger A. Fujihara & Mbodja Mougoué, 1997. "Linear dependence, nonlinear dependence and petroleum futures market efficiency," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 17(1), pages 75-99, February.
    7. Sangram Keshari Jena & Ashutosh Dash, 2014. "Trading activity and Nifty index futures volatility: an empirical analysis," Applied Financial Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 24(17), pages 1167-1176, September.
    8. Paul Berhanu Girma & Mbodja Mougoué, 2002. "An empirical examination of the relation between futures spreads volatility, volume, and open interest," Journal of Futures Markets, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., vol. 22(11), pages 1083-1102, November.
    9. Sangram K. Jena, 2016. "Sequential Information Arrival Hypothesis: More Evidence from the Indian Derivatives Market," Vision, , vol. 20(2), pages 101-110, June.
    10. Bessembinder, Hendrik & Seguin, Paul J., 1993. "Price Volatility, Trading Volume, and Market Depth: Evidence from Futures Markets," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 28(01), pages 21-39, March.
    11. Jean-Marie Dufour & Eric Renault, 1998. "Short Run and Long Run Causality in Time Series: Theory," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 66(5), pages 1099-1126, September.
    12. Bessembinder, Hendrik & Chan, Kalok & Seguin, Paul J., 1996. "An empirical examination of information, differences of opinion, and trading activity," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 40(1), pages 105-134, January.
    13. Dufour, Jean-Marie & Taamouti, Abderrahim, 2010. "Short and long run causality measures: Theory and inference," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 154(1), pages 42-58, January.
    14. Julio Lucia & Angel Pardo, 2010. "On measuring speculative and hedging activities in futures markets from volume and open interest data," Applied Economics, Taylor & Francis Journals, vol. 42(12), pages 1549-1557.
    15. Zhang, Hui Jun & Dufour, Jean-Marie & Galbraith, John W., 2016. "Exchange rates and commodity prices: Measuring causality at multiple horizons," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(C), pages 100-120.
    16. Fung, Hung-Gay & Patterson, Gary A., 1999. "The dynamic relationship of volatility, volume, and market depth in currency futures markets," Journal of International Financial Markets, Institutions and Money, Elsevier, vol. 9(1), pages 33-59, January.
    17. Copeland, Thomas E, 1976. "A Model of Asset Trading under the Assumption of Sequential Information Arrival," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 31(4), pages 1149-1168, September.
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    More about this item


    Trading activity; Multiple-horizon Granger causality; Open interest;

    JEL classification:

    • C12 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Econometric and Statistical Methods and Methodology: General - - - Hypothesis Testing: General
    • C32 - Mathematical and Quantitative Methods - - Multiple or Simultaneous Equation Models; Multiple Variables - - - Time-Series Models; Dynamic Quantile Regressions; Dynamic Treatment Effect Models; Diffusion Processes; State Space Models
    • G11 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Portfolio Choice; Investment Decisions
    • G12 - Financial Economics - - General Financial Markets - - - Asset Pricing; Trading Volume; Bond Interest Rates


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