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Exposure, hedging, and value: New evidence from the U.S. airline industry

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  • Treanor, Stephen D.
  • Rogers, Daniel A.
  • Carter, David A.
  • Simkins, Betty J.

Abstract

For a variety of reasons, the U.S. airline industry is a natural sample to analyze the relation between corporate risk exposure, hedging policy, and firm value. First, we find that airline exposures to fuel prices are higher when fuel prices are high or when they are rising. Second, we analyze the relation between exposure coefficients and the percentage of next year's fuel requirement hedged by airlines. In response to higher fuel price levels, rising fuel prices, and higher levels of exposure to fuel prices, airlines tend to increase their hedging activity. Finally, we explore the previously documented jet fuel hedging premium illustrated in Carter, Rogers, and Simkins (2006). We find a positive hedging premium in our analysis; however, the interaction of hedging and exposure does not affect firm value. We conclude that airlines increasing hedging activity because of higher fuel price exposure are not valued higher compared to those airlines employing more stable hedging policies.

Suggested Citation

  • Treanor, Stephen D. & Rogers, Daniel A. & Carter, David A. & Simkins, Betty J., 2014. "Exposure, hedging, and value: New evidence from the U.S. airline industry," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 34(C), pages 200-211.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:finana:v:34:y:2014:i:c:p:200-211
    DOI: 10.1016/j.irfa.2014.04.002
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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Bessler, Wolfgang & Conlon, Thomas & Huan, Xing, 2019. "Does corporate hedging enhance shareholder value? A meta-analysis," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 61(C), pages 222-232.
    2. Akyildirim, Erdinc & Corbet, Shaen & Efthymiou, Marina & Guiomard, Cathal & O'Connell, John F. & Sensoy, Ahmet, 2020. "The financial market effects of international aviation disasters," International Review of Financial Analysis, Elsevier, vol. 69(C).
    3. Hofmann, Erik & Solakivi, Tomi & Töyli, Juuso & Zinn, Martin, 2018. "Oil price shocks and the financial performance patterns of logistics service providers," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(C), pages 290-306.
    4. Ahmet Duran & Mahmut Sami Gungor, 2017. "Aviation Fuel Hedging and Firm Value Analysis using Dynamic Panel Data Methodology: Evidence from the U.S. Major Passenger Airlines," International Journal of Business and Economic Sciences Applied Research (IJBESAR), International Hellenic University (IHU), Kavala Campus, Greece (formerly Eastern Macedonia and Thrace Institute of Technology - EMaTTech), vol. 10(3), pages 67-72, September.
    5. Sibdari, Soheil & Mohammadian, Iman & Pyke, David F., 2018. "On the impact of jet fuel cost on airlines’ capacity choice: Evidence from the U.S. domestic markets," Transportation Research Part E: Logistics and Transportation Review, Elsevier, vol. 111(C), pages 1-17.
    6. Swidan, Hassan & Merkert, Rico & Kwon, Oh Kang, 2019. "Designing optimal jet fuel hedging strategies for airlines – Why hedging will not always reduce risk exposure," Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, Elsevier, vol. 130(C), pages 20-36.
    7. Carter, David A. & Rogers, Daniel A. & Simkins, Betty J. & Treanor, Stephen D., 2017. "A review of the literature on commodity risk management," Journal of Commodity Markets, Elsevier, vol. 8(C), pages 1-17.
    8. Dinçer, Hasan & Hacıoğlu, Ümit & Yüksel, Serhat, 2017. "Balanced scorecard based performance measurement of European airlines using a hybrid multicriteria decision making approach under the fuzzy environment," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 17-33.
    9. Hu, Rong & Xiao, Yi-bin & Jiang, Changmin, 2018. "Jet fuel hedging, operational fuel efficiency improvement and carbon tax," Transportation Research Part B: Methodological, Elsevier, vol. 116(C), pages 103-123.
    10. Wang, Huabing & Gao, Xiang, 2020. "Oil price dynamics and airline earnings predictability," Journal of Air Transport Management, Elsevier, vol. 87(C).

    More about this item

    Keywords

    Corporate risk management; Hedging; Selective hedging; Risk exposures; Firm value; Airline industry;

    JEL classification:

    • G32 - Financial Economics - - Corporate Finance and Governance - - - Financing Policy; Financial Risk and Risk Management; Capital and Ownership Structure; Value of Firms; Goodwill
    • L93 - Industrial Organization - - Industry Studies: Transportation and Utilities - - - Air Transportation

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