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Modelling optimal production rate with contract effects for international oil development projects


  • Zhao, Xu
  • Luo, Dongkun
  • Xia, Liangyu


Optimizing oil production rate is one of the main challenges in designing development plan of oilfield in international cooperation projects. This paper establishes an oil production rate optimization model to maximize economic benefits within constraints of geological conditions and technology factors as well as oil contracts. This analysis describes the effects of contract terms on parameters of inputs and outputs, quantifies the relationships among production rate and production time, production, investment and costs. The oil exploration and production (E&P) project is illustrated for example, in which the optimal production rate under its own geological conditions and contract terms is calculated. The results reflect that the contract terms exert a tremendous influence on optimal production rate, at which the production in plateau phase occurs on the boundary of sliding scales provided in the contract. Simultaneously, changes in oil prices do not affect the optimal production rate. This study is important for companies to negotiate some elastic terms in contracts and design reasonable development strategies for resource distribution.

Suggested Citation

  • Zhao, Xu & Luo, Dongkun & Xia, Liangyu, 2012. "Modelling optimal production rate with contract effects for international oil development projects," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 45(1), pages 662-668.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:energy:v:45:y:2012:i:1:p:662-668
    DOI: 10.1016/

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. repec:gam:jsusta:v:8:y:2016:i:2:p:188:d:64217 is not listed on IDEAS
    2. Jia-Yue Huang & Yun-Fei Cao & Hui-Ling Zhou & Hong Cao & Bao-Jun Tang & Nan Wang, 2018. "Optimal Investment Timing and Scale Choice of Overseas Oil Projects: A Real Option Approach," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 11(11), pages 1-22, October.
    3. Zhao, Xu & Luo, Dongkun & Lu, Kun & Wang, Xiaoyu & Dahl, Carol, 2019. "How the removal of producer subsidies influences oil and gas extraction: A case study in the Gulf of Mexico," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 166(C), pages 1000-1012.
    4. Hui Li & Renjin Sun & Wei-Jen Lee & Kangyin Dong & Rui Guo, 2016. "Assessing Risk in Chinese Shale Gas Investments Abroad: Modelling and Policy Recommendations," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(8), pages 1-17, July.
    5. Rui Guo & Dongkun Luo & Xu Zhao & Jianliang Wang, 2016. "Integrated Evaluation Method-Based Technical and Economic Factors for International Oil Exploration Projects," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 8(2), pages 1-19, February.
    6. Gholamreza Dehdasht & Rosli Mohamad Zin & M. Salim Ferwati & Mu’azu Mohammed Abdullahi & Ali Keyvanfar & Ronald McCaffer, 2017. "DEMATEL-ANP Risk Assessment in Oil and Gas Construction Projects," Sustainability, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 9(8), pages 1-24, August.
    7. Feng, Zhuo & Zhang, Shui-Bo & Gao, Ying, 2014. "On oil investment and production: A comparison of production sharing contracts and buyback contracts," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 395-402.


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