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Assessment of small hydropower (SHP) development in Turkey: Laws, regulations and EU policy perspective


  • Kucukali, Serhat
  • Baris, Kemal


This paper aims to evaluate the development of small hydropower (SHP) in Turkey and discusses the current situation of SHP plants in terms of government policy, economical aspects and environmental impacts taking EU policy into account. The laws published in recent years in Turkey succeeded in promoting the utilization of renewable energy for electricity generation, but it is considered that those laws are not fully compatible with EU policy. After the publication of Renewable Energy Law (Law No. 5346) there occurred a boost in SHP project along with hydropower development. Thus, the hydropower potential of Turkey increased 15% and the construction of hydropower plants also increased by a factor of four in 2007 as compared to 2006. Investment and operating costs are in favor of SHP development in Turkey as having the lowest costs among European countries (300-1000 [euro]/kW as investment cost and 1 [euro]cent/kWh as operating cost). Turkish governments have taken precautions for environmental issues resulted from renewable energy utilization but these are obviously not adequate. It is concluded that more attention must be paid on environmental issues and monitoring of the facilities must be enabled with further laws or regulations.

Suggested Citation

  • Kucukali, Serhat & Baris, Kemal, 2009. "Assessment of small hydropower (SHP) development in Turkey: Laws, regulations and EU policy perspective," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(10), pages 3872-3879, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:37:y:2009:i:10:p:3872-3879

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Kotcioğlu, İ., 2011. "Clean and sustainable energy policies in Turkey," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 15(9), pages 5111-5119.
    2. Kucukali, Serhat, 2010. "Municipal water supply dams as a source of small hydropower in Turkey," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 35(9), pages 2001-2007.
    3. Erdogdu, Erkan, 2011. "An analysis of Turkish hydropower policy," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 15(1), pages 689-696, January.
    4. Izadyar, Nima & Ong, Hwai Chyuan & Chong, W.T. & Leong, K.Y., 2016. "Resource assessment of the renewable energy potential for a remote area: A review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 62(C), pages 908-923.
    5. Kucukali, Serhat, 2010. "Hydropower potential of municipal water supply dams in Turkey: A case study in Ulutan Dam," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 38(11), pages 6534-6539, November.
    6. Erdem, Z. Bengü, 2010. "The contribution of renewable resources in meeting Turkey's energy-related challenges," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 14(9), pages 2710-2722, December.
    7. Kankal, Murat & Bayram, Adem & Uzlu, Ergun & Satilmiş, Uğur, 2014. "Assessment of hydropower and multi-dam power projects in Turkey," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 68(C), pages 118-133.
    8. Baris, Kemal & Kucukali, Serhat, 2012. "Availibility of renewable energy sources in Turkey: Current situation, potential, government policies and the EU perspective," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 377-391.
    9. Uzlu, Ergun & Akpınar, Adem & Kömürcü, Murat İhsan, 2011. "Restructuring of Turkey’s electricity market and the share of hydropower energy: The case of the Eastern Black Sea Basin," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(2), pages 676-688.
    10. Wagner, Beatrice & Hauer, Christoph & Schoder, Angelika & Habersack, Helmut, 2015. "A review of hydropower in Austria: Past, present and future development," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 50(C), pages 304-314.
    11. Dursun, Bahtiyar & Gokcol, Cihan, 2011. "The role of hydroelectric power and contribution of small hydropower plants for sustainable development in Turkey," Renewable Energy, Elsevier, vol. 36(4), pages 1227-1235.
    12. Ak, M. & Yanmaz, A.M. & Kentel, E., 2014. "A comparative study on energy income estimation: A case study in Turkey," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 38(C), pages 700-705.
    13. Kelly-Richards, Sarah & Silber-Coats, Noah & Crootof, Arica & Tecklin, David & Bauer, Carl, 2017. "Governing the transition to renewable energy: A review of impacts and policy issues in the small hydropower boom," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 101(C), pages 251-264.
    14. Melikoglu, Mehmet, 2013. "Hydropower in Turkey: Analysis in the view of Vision 2023," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 25(C), pages 503-510.
    15. Capik, Mehmet & Osman Yılmaz, Ali & Cavusoglu, İbrahim, 2012. "Hydropower for sustainable energy development in Turkey: The small hydropower case of the Eastern Black Sea Region," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 16(8), pages 6160-6172.
    16. Panić, Milena & Urošev, Marko & Milanović Pešić, Ana & Brankov, Jovana & Bjeljac, Željko, 2013. "Small hydropower plants in Serbia: Hydropower potential, current state and perspectives," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 23(C), pages 341-349.
    17. Serhat, Kucukali, 2011. "Risk assessment of river-type hydropower plants using fuzzy logic approach," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(10), pages 6683-6688, October.


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