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An economic welfare analysis of demand response in the PJM electricity market


  • Walawalkar, Rahul
  • Blumsack, Seth
  • Apt, Jay
  • Fernands, Stephen


We analyze the economic properties of the economic demand-response (DR) program in the PJM electricity market in the United States using DR market data. PJM's program provided subsidies to customers who reduced load in response to price signals. The program incorporated a "trigger point", at a locational marginal price of $75/MWh, at or beyond which payments for load reduction included a subsidy payment. Particularly during peak hours, such a program saves money for the system, but the subsidies involved introduce distortions into the market. We simulate demand-side bidding into the PJM market, and compare the social welfare gains with the subsidies paid to price-responsive load using load and price data for year 2006. The largest economic effect is wealth transfers from generators to non price-responsive loads. Based on the incentive payment structure that was in effect through the end of 2007, we estimate that the social welfare gains exceed the distortions introduced by the subsidies. Lowering the trigger point increases the transfer from generators to consumers, but may result in the subsidy outweighing the social welfare gains due to load curtailment. We estimate that the socially optimal range for the incentive trigger point would be $66-77/MWh.

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  • Walawalkar, Rahul & Blumsack, Seth & Apt, Jay & Fernands, Stephen, 2008. "An economic welfare analysis of demand response in the PJM electricity market," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(10), pages 3692-3702, October.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:enepol:v:36:y:2008:i:10:p:3692-3702

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    References listed on IDEAS

    1. Blumsack, Seth A. & Apt, Jay & Lave, Lester B., 2006. "Lessons from the Failure of U.S. Electricity Restructuring," The Electricity Journal, Elsevier, vol. 19(2), pages 15-32, March.
    2. David S. Loughran and Jonathan Kulick, 2004. "Demand-Side Management and Energy Efficiency in the United States," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 1), pages 19-44.
    3. Severin Borenstein, 2005. "The Long-Run Efficiency of Real-Time Electricity Pricing," The Energy Journal, International Association for Energy Economics, vol. 0(Number 3), pages 93-116.
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    2. Zareen, N. & Mustafa, M.W. & Sultana, U. & Nadia, R. & Khattak, M.A., 2015. "Optimal real time cost-benefit based demand response with intermittent resources," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 90(P2), pages 1695-1706.
    3. Sun, Mei & Li, Juan & Gao, Cuixia & Han, Dun, 2017. "Identifying regime shifts in the US electricity market based on price fluctuations," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 194(C), pages 658-666.
    4. Bertsch, Valentin & Devine, Mel & Sweeney, Conor & Parnell, Andrew C., 2018. "Analysing long-term interactions between demand response and different electricity markets using a stochastic market equilibrium model," Papers WP585, Economic and Social Research Institute (ESRI).
    5. Adela Conchado & Pedro Linares, 2010. "The Economic Impact of Demand-Response Programs on Power Systems. A survey of the State of the Art," Working Papers 02-2010, Economics for Energy.
    6. Boßmann, Tobias & Eser, Eike Johannes, 2016. "Model-based assessment of demand-response measures—A comprehensive literature review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 57(C), pages 1637-1656.
    7. Paterakis, Nikolaos G. & Erdinç, Ozan & Catalão, João P.S., 2017. "An overview of Demand Response: Key-elements and international experience," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 69(C), pages 871-891.
    8. Sahraei-Ardakani, Mostafa & Blumsack, Seth & Kleit, Andrew, 2012. "Distributional impacts of state-level energy efficiency policies in regional electricity markets," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 49(C), pages 365-372.
    9. Prüggler, Natalie, 2013. "Economic potential of demand response at household level—Are Central-European market conditions sufficient?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 60(C), pages 487-498.
    10. O׳Connell, Niamh & Pinson, Pierre & Madsen, Henrik & O׳Malley, Mark, 2014. "Benefits and challenges of electrical demand response: A critical review," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 39(C), pages 686-699.
    11. Nan Zhou & Nian Liu & Jianhua Zhang & Jinyong Lei, 2016. "Multi-Objective Optimal Sizing for Battery Storage of PV-Based Microgrid with Demand Response," Energies, MDPI, Open Access Journal, vol. 9(8), pages 1-24, July.
    12. Jiang, Bo & Farid, Amro M. & Youcef-Toumi, Kamal, 2015. "Demand side management in a day-ahead wholesale market: A comparison of industrial & social welfare approaches," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 156(C), pages 642-654.
    13. Chen, Yang & Hu, Mengqi & Zhou, Zhi, 2017. "A data-driven analytical approach to enable optimal emerging technologies integration in the co-optimized electricity and ancillary service markets," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 122(C), pages 613-626.
    14. Wang, Yong & Li, Lin, 2015. "Time-of-use electricity pricing for industrial customers: A survey of U.S. utilities," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 149(C), pages 89-103.
    15. Keane, A. & Tuohy, A. & Meibom, P. & Denny, E. & Flynn, D. & Mullane, A. & O'Malley, M., 2011. "Demand side resource operation on the Irish power system with high wind power penetration," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 39(5), pages 2925-2934, May.
    16. Greening, Lorna A., 2010. "Demand response resources: Who is responsible for implementation in a deregulated market?," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 35(4), pages 1518-1525.
    17. Katz, Jonas & Andersen, Frits Møller & Morthorst, Poul Erik, 2016. "Load-shift incentives for household demand response: Evaluation of hourly dynamic pricing and rebate schemes in a wind-based electricity system," Energy, Elsevier, vol. 115(P3), pages 1602-1616.
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    21. Khan, Aftab Ahmed & Razzaq, Sohail & Khan, Asadullah & Khursheed, Fatima & Owais,, 2015. "HEMSs and enabled demand response in electricity market: An overview," Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, Elsevier, vol. 42(C), pages 773-785.


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