Cross-country convergence in energy and electricity consumption, 1971–2007
Patterns of convergence in per-capita consumption of energy and electricity are studied from a large cross-country data set covering the period 1971–2007. Along with unconditional β-convergence, we use σ-convergence criterion and a simple model of conditional β-convergence. The exploration is done for the entire period and several subperiods. In addition to OLS for the global sample, β-convergence is studied for top and bottom deciles through quantile regressions. Ten points are noted. First, global convergence in energy consumption is generally weak. Second, convergence in electricity usage is strong in most cases. Third, despite some variations, the patterns are fairly similar across the four periods. Fourth, energy convergence in both top and bottom deciles is generally weak, but there are some variations. Fifth, for electricity, convergence is noted in the top, but not in the bottom, decile. Sixth, unconditional β-convergence patterns are consistent with σ-convergence scenarios. Seventh, as is usually noted, convergence is more marked in conditional β-format than in the unconditional models. However, interpretation of conditional convergence in usage of energy or electricity is somewhat ambiguous. Eighth, weak convergence in energy usage might reflect a modestly larger increase in low-usage contexts relative to high-usage cases, and might not be of concern from the sustainability perspective. Ninth, strong convergence in electricity usage is associated with a much higher rate of global increase than the weakly-convergent energy usage. Last, the difference in convergence patterns for energy- and electricity-usage seems to merit further exploration.
If you experience problems downloading a file, check if you have the proper application to view it first. In case of further problems read the IDEAS help page. Note that these files are not on the IDEAS site. Please be patient as the files may be large.
As the access to this document is restricted, you may want to look for a different version under "Related research" (further below) or search for a different version of it.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Ram, Rati, 2008. "Parametric variability in cross-country growth regressions: An application of quantile-regression methodology," Economics Letters, Elsevier, vol. 99(2), pages 387-389, May.
- Peter Mulder & Henri Groot, 2007.
"Sectoral Energy- and Labour-Productivity Convergence,"
Environmental & Resource Economics,
Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 36(1), pages 85-112, January.
- Peter Mulder & Henri de Groot, 2003. "Sectoral energy- and labour-productivity convergence," CPB Discussion Paper 23, CPB Netherlands Bureau for Economic Policy Analysis.
- Henri De Groot & Peter Mulder, 2004. "Sectoral Energy- and Labour-Productivity Convergence," ERSA conference papers ersa04p337, European Regional Science Association.
- Peter Mulder & Henri L.F. de Groot, 2004. "Sectoral Energy- and Labour-Productivity Convergence," Tinbergen Institute Discussion Papers 04-003/3, Tinbergen Institute.
- Maria Abreu Henri L. F. de Groot & Raymond J. G. M. Florax, 2005. "A Meta-Analysis of β-Convergence: the Legendary 2%," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 19(3), pages 389-420, 07.
- Miketa, Asami & Mulder, Peter, 2005. "Energy productivity across developed and developing countries in 10 manufacturing sectors: Patterns of growth and convergence," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 27(3), pages 429-453, May.
- Liddle, Brantley, 2009. "Electricity intensity convergence in IEA/OECD countries: Aggregate and sectoral analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 1470-1478, April.
- repec:dau:papers:123456789/6801 is not listed on IDEAS
- Le Pen, Yannick & Sévi, Benoît, 2010. "On the non-convergence of energy intensities: Evidence from a pair-wise econometric approach," Ecological Economics, Elsevier, vol. 69(3), pages 641-650, January.
- Yannick LE PEN & Benoît SEVI, 2008. "On the non-convergence of energy intensities: evidence from a pair-wise econometric approach," Cahiers du CREDEN (CREDEN Working Papers) 08.12.79, CREDEN (Centre de Recherche en Economie et Droit de l'Energie), Faculty of Economics, University of Montpellier 1.
- N. Gregory Mankiw & David Romer & David N. Weil, 1992. "A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth," The Quarterly Journal of Economics, Oxford University Press, vol. 107(2), pages 407-437.
- N. Gregory Mankiw & David Romer & David N. Weil, 1990. "A Contribution to the Empirics of Economic Growth," NBER Working Papers 3541, National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc.
- Ezcurra, Roberto, 2007. "Is there cross-country convergence in carbon dioxide emissions?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(2), pages 1363-1372, February.
- Liddle, Brantley, 2010. "Revisiting world energy intensity convergence for regional differences," Applied Energy, Elsevier, vol. 87(10), pages 3218-3225, October.
- Koenker,Roger, 2005. "Quantile Regression," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521845731, November.
- Roger Koenker & Kevin F. Hallock, 2001. "Quantile Regression," Journal of Economic Perspectives, American Economic Association, vol. 15(4), pages 143-156, Fall.
- Koenker,Roger, 2005. "Quantile Regression," Cambridge Books, Cambridge University Press, number 9780521608275, Diciembre.
- Maza, Adolfo & Villaverde, José, 2008. "The world per capita electricity consumption distribution: Signs of convergence?," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 36(11), pages 4255-4261, November.
- Joseph Aldy, 2006. "Per Capita Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Convergence or Divergence?," Environmental & Resource Economics, Springer;European Association of Environmental and Resource Economists, vol. 33(4), pages 533-555, 04.
- Aldy, Joseph, 2005. "Per Capita Carbon Dioxide Emissions: Convergence or Divergence?," Discussion Papers dp-05-53, Resources For the Future.
- Duro, Juan Antonio & Padilla, Emilio, 2011. "Inequality across countries in energy intensities: An analysis of the role of energy transformation and final energy consumption," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 33(3), pages 474-479, May.
- Juan Antonio Duro & Emilio Padilla, 2010. "Inequality across countries in energy intensities: an analysis of the role of energy transformation and final energy consumption," Working Papers wpdea1008, Department of Applied Economics at Universitat Autonoma of Barcelona.
- Nazrul Islam, 2003. "What have We Learnt from the Convergence Debate?," Journal of Economic Surveys, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 17(3), pages 309-362, 07.
- Ezcurra, Roberto, 2007. "Distribution dynamics of energy intensities: A cross-country analysis," Energy Policy, Elsevier, vol. 35(10), pages 5254-5259, October.
- Markandya, Anil & Pedroso-Galinato, Suzette & Streimikiene, Dalia, 2006. "Energy intensity in transition economies: Is there convergence towards the EU average?," Energy Economics, Elsevier, vol. 28(1), pages 121-145, January. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)