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Dividend policy of German firms: A panel data analysis of partial adjustment models


  • Andres, Christian
  • Betzer, André
  • Goergen, Marc
  • Renneboog, Luc


German firms pay out a lower proportion of their cash flows, but a higher proportion of their published profits than UK and US firms. We estimate partial adjustment models and report two major findings. First, German firms base their dividend decisions on cash flows rather than published earnings as (i) published earnings do not correctly reflect performance because German firms retain parts of their earnings to build up legal reserves, (ii) German accounting is conservative, (iii) published earnings are subject to more smoothing than cash flows. Second, to the opposite of UK and US firms, German firms have more flexible dividend policies as they are willing to cut the dividend when profitability is only temporarily down.

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  • Andres, Christian & Betzer, André & Goergen, Marc & Renneboog, Luc, 2009. "Dividend policy of German firms: A panel data analysis of partial adjustment models," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(2), pages 175-187, March.
  • Handle: RePEc:eee:empfin:v:16:y:2009:i:2:p:175-187

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    References listed on IDEAS

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    Cited by:

    1. Cho, Jin Seo & Kim, Tae-hwan & Shin, Yongcheol, 2015. "Quantile cointegration in the autoregressive distributed-lag modeling framework," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 188(1), pages 281-300.
    2. Quoc Trung Tran & Thi Thu Ha Nguyen, 2014. "Dividend Policy Behavior in Emerging Stock Markets: Evidence from Vietnamese Stock Market," International Journal of Financial Research, International Journal of Financial Research, Sciedu Press, vol. 5(4), pages 85-89, October.
    3. Bøhren, Øyvind & Josefsen, Morten G. & Steen, Pål E., 2012. "Stakeholder conflicts and dividend policy," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 36(10), pages 2852-2864.
    4. OUATTARA, Aboudou, 2017. "Politique de distribution de dividendes des sociétés cotées sur les marchés en développement : Cas de la BRVM
      [Dividend policy of companies listed in developing financial markets: Case study of the
      ," MPRA Paper 79839, University Library of Munich, Germany.
    5. Engsted, Tom & Pedersen, Thomas Q., 2010. "The dividend-price ratio does predict dividend growth: International evidence," Journal of Empirical Finance, Elsevier, vol. 17(4), pages 585-605, September.
    6. Francisca Bremberger & Carlo Cambini & Klaus Gugler & Laura Rondi, 2013. "Dividend Policy in Regulated Firms," RSCAS Working Papers 2013/53, European University Institute.
    7. Basil Al-Najjar & Yacine Belghitar, 2012. "The information content of cashflows in the context of dividend smoothing," Economic Issues Journal Articles, Economic Issues, vol. 17(2), pages 57-70, September.
    8. Andres, Christian & Doumet, Markus & Fernau, Erik & Theissen, Erik, 2015. "The Lintner model revisited: Dividends versus total payouts," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 55(C), pages 56-69.
    9. Adelina Gschwandtner & Stefan Hirsch, 2016. "What drives firm profitability? A comparison of the US and EU food processing industry," Studies in Economics 1612, School of Economics, University of Kent.
    10. Korkeamaki, Timo & Liljeblom, Eva & Pasternack, Daniel, 2010. "Tax reform and payout policy: Do shareholder clienteles or payout policy adjust?," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 16(4), pages 572-587, September.
    11. repec:eee:glofin:v:34:y:2017:i:c:p:1-15 is not listed on IDEAS
    12. Flannery, Mark J. & Hankins, Kristine Watson, 2013. "Estimating dynamic panel models in corporate finance," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 19(C), pages 1-19.
    13. Chen, Hong-Yi & Gupta, Manak C. & Lee, Alice C. & Lee, Cheng-Few, 2013. "Sustainable growth rate, optimal growth rate, and optimal payout ratio: A joint optimization approach," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 37(4), pages 1205-1222.
    14. Christian Andres & André Betzer & Marc Goergen, 2012. "Dividend Policy, Corporate Control and the Tax Status of the Controlling Shareholder," Schumpeter Discussion Papers sdp12006, Universitätsbibliothek Wuppertal, University Library.
    15. McSweeney, Brendan, 2009. "The roles of financial asset market failure denial and the economic crisis: Reflections on accounting and financial theories and practices," Accounting, Organizations and Society, Elsevier, vol. 34(6-7), pages 835-848, August.
    16. Andres, Christian & Betzer, André & Goergen, Marc, 2011. "Dividend policy, corporate control and tax clienteles: The case of Germany," CFS Working Paper Series 2011/16, Center for Financial Studies (CFS).
    17. Lin, Winston T. & Kao, Ta-Wei (Daniel), 2014. "The partial adjustment valuation approach with dynamic and variable speeds of adjustment to evaluating and measuring the business value of information technology," European Journal of Operational Research, Elsevier, vol. 238(1), pages 208-220.
    18. Dang, Viet Anh & Kim, Minjoo & Shin, Yongcheol, 2015. "In search of robust methods for dynamic panel data models in empirical corporate finance," Journal of Banking & Finance, Elsevier, vol. 53(C), pages 84-98.
    19. Benavides, Julian & Berggrun, Luis & Perafan, Hector, 2016. "Dividend payout policies: Evidence from Latin America," Finance Research Letters, Elsevier, vol. 17(C), pages 197-210.
    20. Enrico Onali, 2014. "Moral Hazard, Dividends, and Risk in Banks," Journal of Business Finance & Accounting, Wiley Blackwell, vol. 41(1-2), pages 128-155, January.
    21. Doyle, Joanne M., 2017. "Persistence in the long-run expected rate of return for corporate pension plans," The Quarterly Review of Economics and Finance, Elsevier, vol. 63(C), pages 271-277.
    22. Khamis Hamed Al-Yahyaee & Toan Pham & Terry Walter, 2010. "Dividend stability in a unique environment," Managerial Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 36(10), pages 903-916, August.
    23. Leibrecht, Markus & Bellak, Christian & Wild, Michael, 2009. "Does lowering dividend tax rates increase dividends repatriated?: evidence of intra-firm cross-border dividend repatriation policies by German Multinational Enterprises," Discussion Paper Series 1: Economic Studies 2009,19, Deutsche Bundesbank.
    24. repec:eee:finmar:v:36:y:2017:i:c:p:40-55 is not listed on IDEAS


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