Dividend policy of German firms: A panel data analysis of partial adjustment models
German firms pay out a lower proportion of their cash flows, but a higher proportion of their published profits than UK and US firms. We estimate partial adjustment models and report two major findings. First, German firms base their dividend decisions on cash flows rather than published earnings as (i) published earnings do not correctly reflect performance because German firms retain parts of their earnings to build up legal reserves, (ii) German accounting is conservative, (iii) published earnings are subject to more smoothing than cash flows. Second, to the opposite of UK and US firms, German firms have more flexible dividend policies as they are willing to cut the dividend when profitability is only temporarily down.
References listed on IDEAS
Please report citation or reference errors to , or , if you are the registered author of the cited work, log in to your RePEc Author Service profile, click on "citations" and make appropriate adjustments.:
- Eugene F. Fama & Kenneth R. French, 2001.
"Disappearing Dividends: Changing Firm Characteristics Or Lower Propensity To Pay?,"
Journal of Applied Corporate Finance,
Morgan Stanley, vol. 14(1), pages 67-79.
- Fama, Eugene F. & French, Kenneth R., 2001. "Disappearing dividends: changing firm characteristics or lower propensity to pay?," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 60(1), pages 3-43, April.
- Eugene F. Fama & Kenneth R. French, "undated". "Disappearing Dividends: Changing Firm Characteristics or Lower Propensity to Pay?."," CRSP working papers 509, Center for Research in Security Prices, Graduate School of Business, University of Chicago.
- Arellano, Manuel & Bover, Olympia, 1995. "Another look at the instrumental variable estimation of error-components models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 68(1), pages 29-51, July.
- M Arellano & O Bover, 1990. "Another Look at the Instrumental Variable Estimation of Error-Components Models," CEP Discussion Papers dp0007, Centre for Economic Performance, LSE.
- Luc Renneboog, 2007. "Control structures and payout policy," Managerial Finance, Emerald Group Publishing, vol. 33(1), pages 43-64, January.
- Renneboog, L.D.R. & Trojanowski, G., 2005. "Control Structures and Payout Policy," Discussion Paper 2005-014, Tilburg University, Tilburg Law and Economic Center.
- Renneboog, L.D.R. & Trojanowski, G., 2005. "Control Structures and Payout Policy," Discussion Paper 2005-61, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
- Goergen, Marc & Renneboog, Luc & Correia da Silva, Luis, 2005. "When do German firms change their dividends?," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 11(1-2), pages 375-399, March.
- Correia Da Silva, L. & Goergen, M. & Renneboog, L.D.R., 2002. "When do German Firms Change their Dividends?," Discussion Paper 2002-056, Tilburg University, Center for Economic Research.
- Franks, Julian & Mayer, Colin, 2001. "Ownership and Control of German Corporations," Review of Financial Studies, Society for Financial Studies, vol. 14(4), pages 943-977.
- Julian Franks & Colin Mayer, 2001. "Ownership and Control of German Corporations," OFRC Working Papers Series 2001fe11, Oxford Financial Research Centre.
- Franks, Julian R & Mayer, Colin, 2001. "Ownership and Control of German Corporations," CEPR Discussion Papers 2898, C.E.P.R. Discussion Papers.
- Blundell, Richard & Bond, Stephen, 1998. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," Journal of Econometrics, Elsevier, vol. 87(1), pages 115-143, August.
- R Blundell & Steven Bond, "undated". "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data model," Economics Papers W14&104., Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
- Blundell, R. & Bond, S., 1995. "Initial Conditions and Moment Restrictions in Dynamic Panel Data Models," Economics Papers 104, Economics Group, Nuffield College, University of Oxford.
- Richard Blundell & Stephen Bond, 1995. "Initial conditions and moment restrictions in dynamic panel data models," IFS Working Papers W95/17, Institute for Fiscal Studies.
- Amihud, Yakov & Li, Kefei, 2006. "The Declining Information Content of Dividend Announcements and the Effects of Institutional Holdings," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 41(03), pages 637-660, September.
- Aivazian, Varouj A. & Booth, Laurence & Cleary, Sean, 2006. "Dividend Smoothing and Debt Ratings," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 41(02), pages 439-453, June.
- DeAngelo, Harry & DeAngelo, Linda & Skinner, Douglas J., 2004. "Are dividends disappearing? Dividend concentration and the consolidation of earnings," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 72(3), pages 425-456, June.
- Denis, David J. & Osobov, Igor, 2008. "Why do firms pay dividends? International evidence on the determinants of dividend policy," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 89(1), pages 62-82, July.
- Mayer, Colin & Alexander, Ian, 1990. "Banks and securities markets: Corporate financing in Germany and the United Kingdom," Journal of the Japanese and International Economies, Elsevier, vol. 4(4), pages 450-475, December.
- Adaoglu, Cahit, 2000. "Instability in the dividend policy of the Istanbul Stock Exchange (ISE) corporations: evidence from an emerging market," Emerging Markets Review, Elsevier, vol. 1(3), pages 252-270, November.
- Benzinho, José, 2004. "The dividend policy of the Portuguese corporations: Evidence from Euronext Lisbon," MPRA Paper 1137, University Library of Munich, Germany.
- Amihud, Yakov & Murgia, Maurizio, 1997. " Dividends, Taxes, and Signaling: Evidence from Germany," Journal of Finance, American Finance Association, vol. 52(1), pages 397-408, March.
- McDonald, John G. & Jacquillat, Bertrand & Nussenbaum, Maurice, 1975. "Dividend, Investment and Financing Decisions: Empirical Evidence on French Firms," Journal of Financial and Quantitative Analysis, Cambridge University Press, vol. 10(05), pages 741-755, December.
- Correia da Silva, Luis & Goergen, Marc & Renneboog, Luc, 2004. "Dividend Policy and Corporate Governance," OUP Catalogue, Oxford University Press, number 9780199259304.
- Tehmina Khan, 2006. "Company Dividends and Ownership Structure: Evidence from UK Panel Data," Economic Journal, Royal Economic Society, vol. 116(510), pages 172-189, March.
- Nickell, Stephen J, 1981. "Biases in Dynamic Models with Fixed Effects," Econometrica, Econometric Society, vol. 49(6), pages 1417-1426, November.
- Marsh, Terry A & Merton, Robert C, 1987. "Dividend Behavior for the Aggregate Stock Market," The Journal of Business, University of Chicago Press, vol. 60(1), pages 1-40, January.
- Terry A. Marsh and Robert C. Merton., 1986. "Dividend Behavior for the Aggregate Stock Market," Research Program in Finance Working Papers 163, University of California at Berkeley.
- Brickley, James A., 1983. "Shareholder wealth, information signaling and the specially designated dividend : An empirical study," Journal of Financial Economics, Elsevier, vol. 12(2), pages 187-209, August.
- Short, Helen & Zhang, Hao & Keasey, Kevin, 2002. "The link between dividend policy and institutional ownership," Journal of Corporate Finance, Elsevier, vol. 8(2), pages 105-122, March.
- Manuel Arellano & Stephen Bond, 1991. "Some Tests of Specification for Panel Data: Monte Carlo Evidence and an Application to Employment Equations," Review of Economic Studies, Oxford University Press, vol. 58(2), pages 277-297.
- Tom Doan, "undated". "RATS program to replicate Arellano-Bond 1991 dynamic panel," Statistical Software Components RTZ00169, Boston College Department of Economics.
- Brandon Julio & David L. Ikenberry, 2004. "Reappearing Dividends," Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, Morgan Stanley, vol. 16(4), pages 89-100. Full references (including those not matched with items on IDEAS)
When requesting a correction, please mention this item's handle: RePEc:eee:empfin:v:16:y:2009:i:2:p:175-187. See general information about how to correct material in RePEc.
For technical questions regarding this item, or to correct its authors, title, abstract, bibliographic or download information, contact: (Dana Niculescu)
If references are entirely missing, you can add them using this form.