Production-based and consumption-based national greenhouse gas inventories: An implication for Estonia
Two national greenhouse gas (GHG) inventories were prepared for Estonia: (1) an inventory that includes GHG emissions from the production of goods and services (i.e., commodities) within its national territory and (2) an inventory of GHG emissions occurring within and outside its national boundaries due to Estonia's consumption of commodities, whether produced domestically or traded bilaterally. The inventories included estimates of energy-related and non-energy-related carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4) and nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions (converted to CO2-equivalent, CO2eq) associated with the production and consumption of commodities, grouped in three main sectors: energy, industrial processes and agriculture. Input–output (IO) analysis, emissions embodied in bilateral trade (EEBT) approaches and the basic methods of the 2006 IPCC Guidelines were used to perform the estimates. The results of the study illustrated that the total CO2eq emissions associated with consumption in Estonia in 2005 were 18% higher than those associated with production, primarily due to the net import of CO2eq emissions from countries outside of the European Union.
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